Research on plant three-dimensional (3D) genome architecture made rapid progress over the past 5 years. Numerous Hi-C interaction data sets were generated in a wide range of plant species, allowing for a comprehensive overview on 3D chromosome folding principles in the plant kingdom. Plants lack important genes reported to be vital for chromosome folding in animals. However, similar 3D structures such as topologically associating domains and chromatin loops were identified. Recent studies in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed how chromosomal regions are positioned within the nucleus by determining their association with both, the nuclear periphery and the nucleolus. Additionally, many plant species exhibit high-frequency interactions among KNOT entangled elements, which are associated with safeguarding the genome from invasive DNA elements.
Many of the recently published Hi-C data sets were generated to aid de novo genome assembly and remain to date little explored. These data sets represent a valuable resource for future comparative studies, which may lead to a more profound understanding of the evolution of 3D chromosome organization in plants.