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Sex Differences in Left Ventricular Remodeling and Outcomes in Chronic Aortic Regurgitation


Kammerlander, Andreas A; Donà, Carolina; Nitsche, Christian; Koschutnik, Matthias; Zafar, Amna; Eslami, Parastou; Duca, Franz; Aschauer, Stefan; Schönbauer, Robert; Beitzke, Dietrich; Loewe, Christian; Hoffmann, Udo; Gebhard, Cathérine; Hengstenberg, Christian; Mascherbauer, Julia (2020). Sex Differences in Left Ventricular Remodeling and Outcomes in Chronic Aortic Regurgitation. Journal of clinical medicine, 9(12):4100.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Left ventricular (LV) dilatation is a key compensatory feature in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation (AR). However, sex-differences in LV remodeling and outcomes in chronic AR have been poorly investigated so far.

METHODS

We performed cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) including phase-contrast velocity-encoded imaging for the measurement of regurgitant fraction (RegF) at the sinotubular junction, in consecutive patients with at least mild AR on echocardiography. We assessed LV size (end-diastolic volume indexed to body surface area, LVEDV/BSA) and investigated sex differences between LV remodeling and increasing degrees of AR severity. Cox-regression models were used to test differences in outcomes between men and women using a composite of heart failure hospitalization, unscheduled AR intervention, and cardiovascular death.

RESULTS

270 consecutive patients (59.6% male, 59.8 ± 20.8 y/o, 59.6% with at least moderate AR on echocardiography) were included. On CMR, mean RegF was 18.1 ± 17.9% and a total of 65 (24.1%) had a RegF ≥ 30%. LVEDV/BSA was markedly closer related with AR severity (RegF) in men compared to women. Each 1-SD increase in LVEDV/BSA (mL/m$^{2}$) was associated with a 9.7% increase in RegF in men and 5.9% in women, respectively (p-value for sex-interaction < 0.001). Based on previously published reference values, women-in contrast to men-frequently had a normal LV size despite severe AR (e.g., for LVEDV/BSA on CMR: 35.3% versus 8.7%, p < 0.001). In a Cox-regression model adjusted for age, LVEDV/BSA and RegF, women were at significantly higher risk for the composite endpoint when compared to men (adj. HR 1.81 (95%CI 1.09-3.03), p = 0.022).

CONCLUSION

In patients with chronic AR, LV remodeling is a hallmark feature in men but not in women. Severity of AR may be underdiagnosed in female patients in the absence of LV dilatation. Future studies need to address the dismal prognosis in female patients with chronic AR.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Left ventricular (LV) dilatation is a key compensatory feature in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation (AR). However, sex-differences in LV remodeling and outcomes in chronic AR have been poorly investigated so far.

METHODS

We performed cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) including phase-contrast velocity-encoded imaging for the measurement of regurgitant fraction (RegF) at the sinotubular junction, in consecutive patients with at least mild AR on echocardiography. We assessed LV size (end-diastolic volume indexed to body surface area, LVEDV/BSA) and investigated sex differences between LV remodeling and increasing degrees of AR severity. Cox-regression models were used to test differences in outcomes between men and women using a composite of heart failure hospitalization, unscheduled AR intervention, and cardiovascular death.

RESULTS

270 consecutive patients (59.6% male, 59.8 ± 20.8 y/o, 59.6% with at least moderate AR on echocardiography) were included. On CMR, mean RegF was 18.1 ± 17.9% and a total of 65 (24.1%) had a RegF ≥ 30%. LVEDV/BSA was markedly closer related with AR severity (RegF) in men compared to women. Each 1-SD increase in LVEDV/BSA (mL/m$^{2}$) was associated with a 9.7% increase in RegF in men and 5.9% in women, respectively (p-value for sex-interaction < 0.001). Based on previously published reference values, women-in contrast to men-frequently had a normal LV size despite severe AR (e.g., for LVEDV/BSA on CMR: 35.3% versus 8.7%, p < 0.001). In a Cox-regression model adjusted for age, LVEDV/BSA and RegF, women were at significantly higher risk for the composite endpoint when compared to men (adj. HR 1.81 (95%CI 1.09-3.03), p = 0.022).

CONCLUSION

In patients with chronic AR, LV remodeling is a hallmark feature in men but not in women. Severity of AR may be underdiagnosed in female patients in the absence of LV dilatation. Future studies need to address the dismal prognosis in female patients with chronic AR.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Nuclear Medicine
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:18 December 2020
Deposited On:15 Jan 2021 08:55
Last Modified:01 Feb 2021 16:23
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:2077-0383
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124100
PubMed ID:33353247

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