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Bridging the GAPs in plant reproduction: a comparison of plant and animal GPI-anchored proteins


Desnoyer, Nicholas; Palanivelu, Ravishankar (2020). Bridging the GAPs in plant reproduction: a comparison of plant and animal GPI-anchored proteins. Plant Reproduction, 33(3-4):129-142.

Abstract

In Eukaryotes, GPI, a glycolipid molecule, can be post-translationally attached to proteins to serve as an anchor in the plasma membrane. GPI-anchoring, compared to other modes of membrane attachment and lipidation processes, localizes proteins to the extracellular portion of the plasma membrane and confers several unique attributes including specialized sorting during secretion, molecular painting onto membranes, and enzyme-mediated release of protein through anchor cleavage. While the biosynthesis, structure, and role of GPI are mostly studied in mammals, yeast and protists, the function of GPI and GAPs in plants is being discovered, particularly in gametophyte development and function. Here, we review GPI biosynthesis, protein attachment, and remodeling in plants with insights about this process in mammals. Additionally, we summarize the reproductive phenotypes of all loss of function mutations in Arabidopsis GPI biosynthesis and GAP genes and compare these to the reproductive phenotypes seen in mice to serve as a framework to identify gaps in our understanding of plant GPI and GAPs. In addition, we present an analysis on the gametophyte expression of all Arabidopsis GAPs to assist in further research on the role of GPI and GAPs in all aspects of the gametophyte generation in the life cycle of a plant.

Abstract

In Eukaryotes, GPI, a glycolipid molecule, can be post-translationally attached to proteins to serve as an anchor in the plasma membrane. GPI-anchoring, compared to other modes of membrane attachment and lipidation processes, localizes proteins to the extracellular portion of the plasma membrane and confers several unique attributes including specialized sorting during secretion, molecular painting onto membranes, and enzyme-mediated release of protein through anchor cleavage. While the biosynthesis, structure, and role of GPI are mostly studied in mammals, yeast and protists, the function of GPI and GAPs in plants is being discovered, particularly in gametophyte development and function. Here, we review GPI biosynthesis, protein attachment, and remodeling in plants with insights about this process in mammals. Additionally, we summarize the reproductive phenotypes of all loss of function mutations in Arabidopsis GPI biosynthesis and GAP genes and compare these to the reproductive phenotypes seen in mice to serve as a framework to identify gaps in our understanding of plant GPI and GAPs. In addition, we present an analysis on the gametophyte expression of all Arabidopsis GAPs to assist in further research on the role of GPI and GAPs in all aspects of the gametophyte generation in the life cycle of a plant.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
07 Faculty of Science > Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Plant Science
Life Sciences > Cell Biology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Plant Science, Cell Biology
Language:English
Date:1 December 2020
Deposited On:15 Jan 2021 15:41
Last Modified:16 Jan 2021 21:02
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:2194-7961
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00497-020-00395-9

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