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Basic Hallmarks of Urothelial Cancer Unleashed in Primary Uroepithelium by Interference with the Epigenetic Master Regulator ODC1


Erichsen, Lars; Seifert, Hans-Helge; Schulz, Wolfgang A; Hoffmann, Michèle J; Niegisch, Günter; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Bendhack, Marcelo L; Poyet, Cedric; Hermanns, Thomas; Beermann, Agnes; Hassan, Mohamed; Theis, Lisa; Mahmood, Wardah; Santourlidis, Simeon (2020). Basic Hallmarks of Urothelial Cancer Unleashed in Primary Uroepithelium by Interference with the Epigenetic Master Regulator ODC1. Scientific Reports, 10:3808.

Abstract

Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is a common disease causing significant morbidity and mortality as well as considerable costs for health systems. Extensive aberrant methylation of DNA is broadly documented in early UC, contributing to genetic instability, altered gene expression and tumor progression. However the triggers initiating aberrant methylation are unknown. Recently we discovered that several genes encoding key enzymes of methyl group and polyamine metabolism, including Ornithine Decarboxylase 1 (ODC1), are affected by DNA methylation in early stage UC. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that these epigenetic alterations act in a feed-forward fashion to promote aberrant DNA methylation in UC. We demonstrate that siRNA-mediated knockdown of ODC1 expression elicits genome-wide LINE-1 demethylation, induction of LINE-1 transcripts and double-strand DNA breaks and decreases viability in primary cultured uroepithelial cells. Similarly, following siRNA-mediated knockdown of ODC1, UC cells undergo double-strand DNA breaks and apoptosis. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that ODC1 gene hypermethylation could be a starting point for the onset of genome-wide epigenetic aberrations in urothelial carcinogenesis. Furthermore, LINE-1 induction enabled by ODC1 interference provides a new experimental model to study mechanisms and consequences of LINE-1 activation in the etiology and progression of UC as well as presumably other cancers.

Abstract

Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is a common disease causing significant morbidity and mortality as well as considerable costs for health systems. Extensive aberrant methylation of DNA is broadly documented in early UC, contributing to genetic instability, altered gene expression and tumor progression. However the triggers initiating aberrant methylation are unknown. Recently we discovered that several genes encoding key enzymes of methyl group and polyamine metabolism, including Ornithine Decarboxylase 1 (ODC1), are affected by DNA methylation in early stage UC. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that these epigenetic alterations act in a feed-forward fashion to promote aberrant DNA methylation in UC. We demonstrate that siRNA-mediated knockdown of ODC1 expression elicits genome-wide LINE-1 demethylation, induction of LINE-1 transcripts and double-strand DNA breaks and decreases viability in primary cultured uroepithelial cells. Similarly, following siRNA-mediated knockdown of ODC1, UC cells undergo double-strand DNA breaks and apoptosis. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that ODC1 gene hypermethylation could be a starting point for the onset of genome-wide epigenetic aberrations in urothelial carcinogenesis. Furthermore, LINE-1 induction enabled by ODC1 interference provides a new experimental model to study mechanisms and consequences of LINE-1 activation in the etiology and progression of UC as well as presumably other cancers.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Urological Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Multidisciplinary
Language:English
Date:2 March 2020
Deposited On:22 Jan 2021 08:57
Last Modified:01 Feb 2021 16:24
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group
ISSN:2045-2322
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60796-8
PubMed ID:32123240

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