Cervical swabs and serum samples were taken from Swiss herds of sows with high rates of irregular return to oestrus (group A) and from control herds without reproductive problems (group B. The genital tracts of 21 slaughtered sows of group A were also examined. The swabs and genital tracts were screened for Chlamydiae by a new 16S rRNA PCR and the sera by an ELISA for Chlamydiaceae lipopolysaccharide. Chlamydophila (Cp) abortus was isolated from seven of the 65 swabs taken from group A but from none of the 128 swabs taken from group B. Chlamydia suis was present in swabs from both groups A (1.5 per cent) and B (2.3 per cent). In addition, Cp abortus was detected in 33.3 per cent of the genital tracts. Of the 193 sera tested, 61.7 per cent were positive, with no significant difference between group A (52.3 per cent) and group B (66.4 per cent). Chlamydia-like organisms were detected in 28.2 per cent of the swabs from group A and in 22 per cent of those from group B.