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How Fast Is Too Fast? The Role of Perception Latency in High-Speed Sense and Avoid


Falanga, Davide; Kim, Suseong; Scaramuzza, Davide (2019). How Fast Is Too Fast? The Role of Perception Latency in High-Speed Sense and Avoid. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 4(2):1884-1891.

Abstract

In this letter, we study the effects that perception latency has on the maximum speed a robot can reach to safely navigate through an unknown cluttered environment. We provide a general analysis that can serve as a baseline for future quantitative reasoning for design tradeoffs in autonomous robot navigation. We consider the case where the robot is modeled as a linear secondorder system with bounded input and navigates through static obstacles. Also, we focus on a scenario where the robot wants to reach a target destination in as little time as possible, and therefore cannot change its longitudinal velocity to avoid obstacles. We show how the maximum latency that the robot can tolerate to guarantee safety is related to the desired speed, the range of its sensing pipeline, and the actuation limitations of the platform (i.e., the maximum acceleration it can produce). As a particular case study, we compare monocular and stereo frame-based cameras against novel, low-latency sensors, such as event cameras, in the case of quadrotor flight. To validate our analysis, we conduct experiments on a quadrotor platform equipped with an event camera to detect and avoid obstacles thrown towards the robot. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first theoretical work in which perception and actuation limitations are jointly considered to study the performance of a robotic platform in high-speed navigation.

Abstract

In this letter, we study the effects that perception latency has on the maximum speed a robot can reach to safely navigate through an unknown cluttered environment. We provide a general analysis that can serve as a baseline for future quantitative reasoning for design tradeoffs in autonomous robot navigation. We consider the case where the robot is modeled as a linear secondorder system with bounded input and navigates through static obstacles. Also, we focus on a scenario where the robot wants to reach a target destination in as little time as possible, and therefore cannot change its longitudinal velocity to avoid obstacles. We show how the maximum latency that the robot can tolerate to guarantee safety is related to the desired speed, the range of its sensing pipeline, and the actuation limitations of the platform (i.e., the maximum acceleration it can produce). As a particular case study, we compare monocular and stereo frame-based cameras against novel, low-latency sensors, such as event cameras, in the case of quadrotor flight. To validate our analysis, we conduct experiments on a quadrotor platform equipped with an event camera to detect and avoid obstacles thrown towards the robot. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first theoretical work in which perception and actuation limitations are jointly considered to study the performance of a robotic platform in high-speed navigation.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:03 Faculty of Economics > Department of Informatics
Dewey Decimal Classification:000 Computer science, knowledge & systems
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Control and Systems Engineering
Physical Sciences > Biomedical Engineering
Physical Sciences > Human-Computer Interaction
Physical Sciences > Mechanical Engineering
Physical Sciences > Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Physical Sciences > Computer Science Applications
Physical Sciences > Control and Optimization
Physical Sciences > Artificial Intelligence
Language:English
Date:2019
Deposited On:27 Jan 2021 14:32
Last Modified:28 Jan 2021 21:00
Publisher:Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
ISSN:2377-3766
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1109/LRA.2019.2898117
Other Identification Number:merlin-id:18855

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