This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of resin-based luting cements on fibroblast cells using different polymerization protocols.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Two conventional dual-polymerized (RelyX ARC, VariolinkN) and two self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Multilink Speed) specimens were polymerized using four different polymerization protocols: (a) photo-polymerization with direct light application, (b) photo-polymerization over ceramic and (c) resin nano-ceramic discs and (d) auto-polymerization. The specimens were then assigned to four groups to test cytotoxicity at 0, 1, 2 and 7 preincubation days (n = 5). MTT test was performed using NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells. Data were analysed using three- and one-way ANOVA. Multiple comparisons were made using Bonferroni post hoc test (p < 0.05).
The highest cytotoxic values were recorded at day 2 for conventional resin cements and at day 0 for self-adhesive resin cements. Self-adhesive resin cements showed the most cytotoxic effect at the second day, while conventional resin cements presented immediate cytotoxicity. Auto-polymerized resin specimens and especially Multilink Speed demonstrated the most cytotoxic effect regardless of the preincubation time. Cytotoxicity of cements tested reached the lowest level at day 7. Interposition of ceramic or nano-ceramic restorative material did not significantly affect the cytotoxicity of tested luting cements (p > 0.05).
Cytotoxicity of dual-polymerized resin cements was material-dependent and decreased gradually up to 7 days. Photo-polymerization plays an important role in reducing the cytotoxic effects.
When luting ceramic or resin nano-ceramic restorations of which thickness does not exceed 2 mm, the level of cytotoxicity with the tested materials is not significant. Luting of restorative materials that do not allow for light transmission such as metal-fused porcelain, clinicians should be cautious in the use of dual-polymerized conventional resin cements as only auto-polymerization of resin cements takes place under such materials.