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Expanding the clinical and genetic spectrum of CAD deficiency: an epileptic encephalopathy treatable with uridine supplementation


Abstract

PURPOSE

Biallelic CAD variants underlie CAD deficiency (or early infantile epileptic encephalopathy-50, [EIEE-50]), an error of pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis amenable to treatment via the uridine salvage pathway. We further define the genotype and phenotype with a focus on treatment.

METHODS

Retrospective case series of 20 patients.

RESULTS

Our study confirms CAD deficiency as a progressive EIEE with recurrent status epilepticus, loss of skills, and dyserythropoietic anemia. We further refine the phenotype by reporting a movement disorder as a frequent feature, and add that milder courses with isolated developmental delay/intellectual disability can occur as well as onset with neonatal seizures. With no biomarker available, the diagnosis relies on genetic testing and functional validation in patient-derived fibroblasts. Underlying pathogenic variants are often rated as variants of unknown significance, which could lead to underrecognition of this treatable disorder. Supplementation with uridine, uridine monophosphate, or uridine triacetate in ten patients was safe and led to significant clinical improvement in most patients.

CONCLUSION

We advise a trial with uridine (monophosphate) in all patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability, epilepsy, and anemia; all patients with status epilepticus; and all patients with neonatal seizures until (genetically) proven otherwise or proven unsuccessful after 6 months. CAD deficiency might represent a condition for genetic newborn screening.

Abstract

PURPOSE

Biallelic CAD variants underlie CAD deficiency (or early infantile epileptic encephalopathy-50, [EIEE-50]), an error of pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis amenable to treatment via the uridine salvage pathway. We further define the genotype and phenotype with a focus on treatment.

METHODS

Retrospective case series of 20 patients.

RESULTS

Our study confirms CAD deficiency as a progressive EIEE with recurrent status epilepticus, loss of skills, and dyserythropoietic anemia. We further refine the phenotype by reporting a movement disorder as a frequent feature, and add that milder courses with isolated developmental delay/intellectual disability can occur as well as onset with neonatal seizures. With no biomarker available, the diagnosis relies on genetic testing and functional validation in patient-derived fibroblasts. Underlying pathogenic variants are often rated as variants of unknown significance, which could lead to underrecognition of this treatable disorder. Supplementation with uridine, uridine monophosphate, or uridine triacetate in ten patients was safe and led to significant clinical improvement in most patients.

CONCLUSION

We advise a trial with uridine (monophosphate) in all patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability, epilepsy, and anemia; all patients with status epilepticus; and all patients with neonatal seizures until (genetically) proven otherwise or proven unsuccessful after 6 months. CAD deficiency might represent a condition for genetic newborn screening.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Genetics (clinical)
Language:English
Date:October 2020
Deposited On:26 Jan 2021 13:39
Last Modified:27 Jan 2021 21:02
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group
ISSN:1098-3600
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0933-z
PubMed ID:32820246

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