Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

The effects of elaboration on working memory and long-term memory across age


Bartsch, Lea M; Oberauer, Klaus (2021). The effects of elaboration on working memory and long-term memory across age. Journal of Memory & Language, 118:104215.

Abstract

Free time to attend to and process information in working memory is key in promoting immediate and delayed retention. One candidate process to cause this benefit is elaboration. We conducted three experiments with young adults – two of which included older adults – to investigate whether free time is used for elaboration, and whether elaboration causes the free-time benefit. Participants remembered lists of nouns, interleaved with short or long free-time intervals, or with filler words connecting all the nouns into a meaningful sentence to assist elaboration. For young adults, assisted elaboration through sentences, and the additional instruction to form a mental image, benefited performance in a working-memory test as much as longer free time, but not more. In contrast, for a delayed test of long-term memory, the benefits of sentence elaboration exceeded those of longer free time. Older adults did not benefit from assisted elaborations in the delayed test, providing further evidence that the long-term memory deficit of older adults arises at least in part from a deficit in elaboration. This elaboration deficit is not driven by a deficit in generating richer representations.

Abstract

Free time to attend to and process information in working memory is key in promoting immediate and delayed retention. One candidate process to cause this benefit is elaboration. We conducted three experiments with young adults – two of which included older adults – to investigate whether free time is used for elaboration, and whether elaboration causes the free-time benefit. Participants remembered lists of nouns, interleaved with short or long free-time intervals, or with filler words connecting all the nouns into a meaningful sentence to assist elaboration. For young adults, assisted elaboration through sentences, and the additional instruction to form a mental image, benefited performance in a working-memory test as much as longer free time, but not more. In contrast, for a delayed test of long-term memory, the benefits of sentence elaboration exceeded those of longer free time. Older adults did not benefit from assisted elaborations in the delayed test, providing further evidence that the long-term memory deficit of older adults arises at least in part from a deficit in elaboration. This elaboration deficit is not driven by a deficit in generating richer representations.

Statistics

Citations

Dimensions.ai Metrics

Altmetrics

Downloads

3 downloads since deposited on 26 Jan 2021
3 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Psychology
08 Research Priority Programs > Dynamics of Healthy Aging
Dewey Decimal Classification:150 Psychology
Scopus Subject Areas:Social Sciences & Humanities > Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
Social Sciences & Humanities > Language and Linguistics
Social Sciences & Humanities > Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Social Sciences & Humanities > Linguistics and Language
Physical Sciences > Artificial Intelligence
Uncontrolled Keywords:Linguistics and Language, Experimental and Cognitive Psychology, Artificial Intelligence, Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology, Language and Linguistics
Language:English
Date:1 June 2021
Deposited On:26 Jan 2021 13:20
Last Modified:27 Jan 2021 21:02
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0749-596X
OA Status:Hybrid
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2020.104215
Related URLs:https://osf.io/4n9y3/ (Research Data)

Download

Hybrid Open Access

Download PDF  'The effects of elaboration on working memory and long-term memory across age'.
Preview
Content: Published Version
Language: English
Filetype: PDF
Size: 2MB
View at publisher
Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)