# Influence of ZrO$_{2}$ Addition on Structural and Biological Activity of Phosphate Glasses for Bone Regeneration

Mohan Babu, M; Syam Prasad, P; Venkateswara Rao, P; Hima Bindu, S; Prasad, A; Veeraiah, N; Özcan, Mutlu (2020). Influence of ZrO$_{2}$ Addition on Structural and Biological Activity of Phosphate Glasses for Bone Regeneration. Materials, 13(18):4058.

## Abstract

Zirconium doped calcium phosphate-based bioglasses are the most prominent bioactive materials for bone and dental repair and regeneration implants. In the present study, a 8ZnO-22Na2O-(24 - x)CaO-46P2O5-xZrO2 (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.7, all are in mol%) bioglass system was synthesized by the conventional melt-quenching process at 1100 °C. The glass-forming ability and thermal stability of the glasses were determined by measuring the glass transition temperature (Tg), crystallization temperature (Tc), and melting temperature (Tm), using differential thermal analysis (DTA). The biological activity of the prepared samples was identified by analyzing X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectra (SEM-EDS), before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various intervals of 0, 1 and 5 days, along with the magnitude of pH and the degradation of glasses also evaluated. The obtained results revealed that the glass-forming ability and thermal stability of glasses increased with the increase in zirconia mol%. The XRD, FTIR, and SEM-EDS data confirmed a thin hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer over the sample surface after incubation in SBF for 1 and 5 days. Furthermore, the development of layer found to be increased with the increase of incubation time. The degradation of the glasses in SBF increased with incubation time and decreased gradually with the increase content of ZrO2 mol% in the host glass matrix. A sudden rise in initial pH values of residual SBF for 1 day owing to ion leaching and increase of Ca2+ and PO43- ions and then decreased. These findings confirmed the suitability of choosing material for bone-related applications.

## Abstract

Zirconium doped calcium phosphate-based bioglasses are the most prominent bioactive materials for bone and dental repair and regeneration implants. In the present study, a 8ZnO-22Na2O-(24 - x)CaO-46P2O5-xZrO2 (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.7, all are in mol%) bioglass system was synthesized by the conventional melt-quenching process at 1100 °C. The glass-forming ability and thermal stability of the glasses were determined by measuring the glass transition temperature (Tg), crystallization temperature (Tc), and melting temperature (Tm), using differential thermal analysis (DTA). The biological activity of the prepared samples was identified by analyzing X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectra (SEM-EDS), before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various intervals of 0, 1 and 5 days, along with the magnitude of pH and the degradation of glasses also evaluated. The obtained results revealed that the glass-forming ability and thermal stability of glasses increased with the increase in zirconia mol%. The XRD, FTIR, and SEM-EDS data confirmed a thin hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer over the sample surface after incubation in SBF for 1 and 5 days. Furthermore, the development of layer found to be increased with the increase of incubation time. The degradation of the glasses in SBF increased with incubation time and decreased gradually with the increase content of ZrO2 mol% in the host glass matrix. A sudden rise in initial pH values of residual SBF for 1 day owing to ion leaching and increase of Ca2+ and PO43- ions and then decreased. These findings confirmed the suitability of choosing material for bone-related applications.

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Item Type: Journal Article, refereed, original work 04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic of Reconstructive Dentistry 610 Medicine & health Physical Sciences > General Materials Science English 12 September 2020 27 Jan 2021 13:33 01 Feb 2021 16:30 MDPI Publishing 1996-1944 Gold PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13184058 32932693