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Differential effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus: a long-term retrospective cohort study


Kahr, Peter C; Trenson, Sander; Schindler, Matthias; Kuster, Joël; Kaufmann, Philippe; Tonko, Johanna; Hofer, Daniel; Inderbitzin, Devdas T; Breitenstein, Alexander; Saguner, Ardan M; Flammer, Andreas J; Ruschitzka, Frank; Steffel, Jan; Winnik, Stephan (2020). Differential effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus: a long-term retrospective cohort study. ESC Heart Failure, 7(5):2773-2783.

Abstract

AIMS

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has become an important therapy in patients with heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The effect of diabetes on long-term outcome in these patients is controversial. We assessed the effect of diabetes on long-term outcome in CRT patients and investigated the role of diabetes in ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy.

METHODS AND RESULTS

All patients undergoing CRT implantation at our institution between November 2000 and January 2015 were enrolled. The study endpoints were (i) a composite of ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation, heart transplantation, or all-cause mortality; and (ii) reverse remodelling (improvement of LVEF ≥ 10% or reduction of left ventricular end-systolic volume ≥ 15%). Median follow-up of the 418 patients (age 64.6 ± 11.6 years, 22.5% female, 25.1% diabetes) was 4.8 years [inter-quartile range: 2.8;7.4]. Diabetic patients had an increased risk to reach the composite endpoint [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.48 [95% CI 1.12-2.16], P = 0.041]. Other factors associated with an increased risk to reach the composite endpoint were a lower body mass index or baseline LVEF (aHR 0.95 [0.91; 0.98] and 0.97 [0.95; 0.99], P < 0.01 each), and a higher New York Heart Association functional class or creatinine level (aHR 2.14 [1.38; 3.30] and 1.04 [1.01; 1.05], P < 0.05 each). Early response to CRT, defined as LVEF improvement ≥ 10%, was associated with a lower risk to reach the composite endpoint (aHR 0.60 [0.40; 0.89], P = 0.011). Reverse remodelling did not differ between diabetic and non-diabetic patients with respect to LVEF improvement ≥ 10% (aHR 0.60 [0.32; 1.14], P = 0.118). However, diabetes was associated with decreased reverse remodelling with respect to a reduction of left ventricular end-systolic volume ≥ 15% (aHR 0.45 [0.21; 0.97], P = 0.043). In patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy, survival rates were not significantly different between diabetic and non-diabetic patients (HR 1.28 [0.83-1.97], P = 0.101), whereas in patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy, diabetic patients had a higher risk of reaching the composite endpoint (HR 1.65 [1.06-2.58], P = 0.027). The latter effect was dependent on other risk factors (aHR 1.47 [0.83-2.61], P = 0.451). The risk of insulin-dependent patients was not significantly higher than in patients under oral antidiabetic drugs (HR 1.55 [95% CI 0.92-2.61], P = 0.102).

CONCLUSIONS

Long-term follow-up revealed diabetes mellitus as independent risk factor for all-cause mortality, heart transplantation, or VAD in heart failure patients undergoing CRT. The detrimental effect of diabetes appeared to weigh heavier in patients with non-ischaemic compared with ischaemic cardiomyopathy.

Abstract

AIMS

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has become an important therapy in patients with heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The effect of diabetes on long-term outcome in these patients is controversial. We assessed the effect of diabetes on long-term outcome in CRT patients and investigated the role of diabetes in ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy.

METHODS AND RESULTS

All patients undergoing CRT implantation at our institution between November 2000 and January 2015 were enrolled. The study endpoints were (i) a composite of ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation, heart transplantation, or all-cause mortality; and (ii) reverse remodelling (improvement of LVEF ≥ 10% or reduction of left ventricular end-systolic volume ≥ 15%). Median follow-up of the 418 patients (age 64.6 ± 11.6 years, 22.5% female, 25.1% diabetes) was 4.8 years [inter-quartile range: 2.8;7.4]. Diabetic patients had an increased risk to reach the composite endpoint [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.48 [95% CI 1.12-2.16], P = 0.041]. Other factors associated with an increased risk to reach the composite endpoint were a lower body mass index or baseline LVEF (aHR 0.95 [0.91; 0.98] and 0.97 [0.95; 0.99], P < 0.01 each), and a higher New York Heart Association functional class or creatinine level (aHR 2.14 [1.38; 3.30] and 1.04 [1.01; 1.05], P < 0.05 each). Early response to CRT, defined as LVEF improvement ≥ 10%, was associated with a lower risk to reach the composite endpoint (aHR 0.60 [0.40; 0.89], P = 0.011). Reverse remodelling did not differ between diabetic and non-diabetic patients with respect to LVEF improvement ≥ 10% (aHR 0.60 [0.32; 1.14], P = 0.118). However, diabetes was associated with decreased reverse remodelling with respect to a reduction of left ventricular end-systolic volume ≥ 15% (aHR 0.45 [0.21; 0.97], P = 0.043). In patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy, survival rates were not significantly different between diabetic and non-diabetic patients (HR 1.28 [0.83-1.97], P = 0.101), whereas in patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy, diabetic patients had a higher risk of reaching the composite endpoint (HR 1.65 [1.06-2.58], P = 0.027). The latter effect was dependent on other risk factors (aHR 1.47 [0.83-2.61], P = 0.451). The risk of insulin-dependent patients was not significantly higher than in patients under oral antidiabetic drugs (HR 1.55 [95% CI 0.92-2.61], P = 0.102).

CONCLUSIONS

Long-term follow-up revealed diabetes mellitus as independent risk factor for all-cause mortality, heart transplantation, or VAD in heart failure patients undergoing CRT. The detrimental effect of diabetes appeared to weigh heavier in patients with non-ischaemic compared with ischaemic cardiomyopathy.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Cardiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Language:English
Date:October 2020
Deposited On:28 Jan 2021 11:13
Last Modified:01 Feb 2021 16:30
Publisher:Wiley Open Access
ISSN:2055-5822
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12876
PubMed ID:32652900

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