Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Variations in the Mineral Content of Bottled "Still" Water Across Europe: Comparison of 182 Brands Across 10 Countries


Stoots, Simone J M; Geraghty, Rob; Kamphuis, Guido M; Jamnadass, Enakshee; Henderickx, Michael M E L; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Traxer, Olivier; Keller, Etienne X; DeConinck, Vincent; Talso, Michele; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Emiliani, Esteban; Bres-Niewada, Ewa; Karim, Sadaf S; Picirilli, Angela; Somani, Bhaskar K (2021). Variations in the Mineral Content of Bottled "Still" Water Across Europe: Comparison of 182 Brands Across 10 Countries. Journal of Endourology, 35(2):206-214.

Abstract

Introduction: Kidney stone disease (KSD) is a highly prevalent disease worldwide. As water intake and its mineral content influence stone formation and recurrence, patients and physicians must be aware of the mineral content of drinkable water. We analyzed commercial bottled still water within Europe to assess the variation in its mineral composition across different manufacturers and countries. Materials and Methods: Data on the mineral composition of bottled still water regarding bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and sulfate concentration (mg/L) were collected from ten European countries. To collect the data, the two main supermarket chains in each participating country were either visited to check for the ingredient label on bottles or the online shop was consulted through the website of the supermarket in question. Descriptive statistics such as simple boxplots were used to illustrate the variation in mineral content. Results: One hundred eighty-two different commercial water brands were analyzed. Up to a fivefold variation in average concentrations per mineral between countries was observed. For calcium, a wide distribution was found in France and Switzerland compared with other countries with calcium levels ranging from 10.5 to 565 mg/L and 8.4 to 579 mg/L, respectively. By consuming 2 L of water with such high calcium levels, the daily reference intake for calcium is already achieved. Conclusions: The mineral content of bottled still water across Europe varies greatly. For patients with KSD it is important to be aware of the mineral content of the water they drink, as it might influence stone recurrence rates and necessitate alterations of their diet.

Abstract

Introduction: Kidney stone disease (KSD) is a highly prevalent disease worldwide. As water intake and its mineral content influence stone formation and recurrence, patients and physicians must be aware of the mineral content of drinkable water. We analyzed commercial bottled still water within Europe to assess the variation in its mineral composition across different manufacturers and countries. Materials and Methods: Data on the mineral composition of bottled still water regarding bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and sulfate concentration (mg/L) were collected from ten European countries. To collect the data, the two main supermarket chains in each participating country were either visited to check for the ingredient label on bottles or the online shop was consulted through the website of the supermarket in question. Descriptive statistics such as simple boxplots were used to illustrate the variation in mineral content. Results: One hundred eighty-two different commercial water brands were analyzed. Up to a fivefold variation in average concentrations per mineral between countries was observed. For calcium, a wide distribution was found in France and Switzerland compared with other countries with calcium levels ranging from 10.5 to 565 mg/L and 8.4 to 579 mg/L, respectively. By consuming 2 L of water with such high calcium levels, the daily reference intake for calcium is already achieved. Conclusions: The mineral content of bottled still water across Europe varies greatly. For patients with KSD it is important to be aware of the mineral content of the water they drink, as it might influence stone recurrence rates and necessitate alterations of their diet.

Statistics

Citations

Altmetrics

Downloads

0 downloads since deposited on 29 Jan 2021
0 downloads since 12 months

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Urological Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 February 2021
Deposited On:29 Jan 2021 10:09
Last Modified:23 Feb 2021 02:20
Publisher:Mary Ann Liebert
ISSN:0892-7790
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1089/end.2020.0677
PubMed ID:32762257

Download

Closed Access: Download allowed only for UZH members