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Spatial Distribution of Focal Lesions in Whole-Body MRI and Influence of MRI Protocol on Staging in Patients with Smoldering Multiple Myeloma According to the New SLiM-CRAB-Criteria


Wennmann, Markus; Hielscher, Thomas; Kintzelé, Laurent; Menze, Bjoern H; Langs, Georg; Merz, Maximilian; Sauer, Sandra; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Delorme, Stefan; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Weinhold, Niels; Hillengass, Jens; Weber, Marc-André (2020). Spatial Distribution of Focal Lesions in Whole-Body MRI and Influence of MRI Protocol on Staging in Patients with Smoldering Multiple Myeloma According to the New SLiM-CRAB-Criteria. Cancers, 12(9):2537.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess how different MRI protocols (spinal vs. spinal plus pelvic vs. whole-body (wb)-MRI) affect staging in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), according to the SLiM-CRAB-criterion ‘>1 focal lesion (FL) in MRI’. In this retrospective study, a baseline cohort of 147 SMM patients with wb-MRI at initial diagnosis was investigated, including prognostic data regarding development of CRAB-criteria. Fifty-two patients formed a follow-up cohort with a median of three wb-MRIs. The locations of all FLs were determined and it was calculated how staging decisions regarding the criterion ‘>1 FL in MRI’ would have been made if only a limited anatomic area (spine vs. spine plus pelvis) would have been covered by the MRI protocol. Furthermore, subgroups of patients selected by different cutoff-protocol-combinations were compared regarding their prognosis for development of CRAB-criteria. With an MRI protocol limited to spine/spine plus pelvis, only 28%/64% of patients who actually had >1 FL in wb-MRI would have been rated correctly as having ‘>1 FL in MRI’. Fifty-four percent/36% of patients with exactly 1 FL in spine/spine plus pelvis revealed >1 FL when the entire wb-MRI was analyzed. During follow-up, four more patients developed >1 FL in wb-MRI; both limited MRI protocols would have detected only one of these four patients as having >1 FL at the correct timepoint. Having >1 FL in spine/in spine plus pelvis/in the whole body was associated with a 43%/57%/49% probability of developing CRAB-criteria within 2 years. Patients with >3 FL in spine plus pelvis and patients with >4 FL in the whole body had an 80% probability to develop CRAB-criteria within 2 years. MRI protocols limited to the spine or to spine plus pelvis lead to substantial underdiagnoses of patients who actually have >1 FL in wb-MRI at baseline and during follow-up, which influences staging and treatment decisions according to the current SLiM-CRAB criteria. However, given the spatial distribution of FLs and the analysis on clinical course of patients indicates that the cutoff for the number of FLs should be adopted according to the MRI protocol when using MRI for staging in SMM.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess how different MRI protocols (spinal vs. spinal plus pelvic vs. whole-body (wb)-MRI) affect staging in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), according to the SLiM-CRAB-criterion ‘>1 focal lesion (FL) in MRI’. In this retrospective study, a baseline cohort of 147 SMM patients with wb-MRI at initial diagnosis was investigated, including prognostic data regarding development of CRAB-criteria. Fifty-two patients formed a follow-up cohort with a median of three wb-MRIs. The locations of all FLs were determined and it was calculated how staging decisions regarding the criterion ‘>1 FL in MRI’ would have been made if only a limited anatomic area (spine vs. spine plus pelvis) would have been covered by the MRI protocol. Furthermore, subgroups of patients selected by different cutoff-protocol-combinations were compared regarding their prognosis for development of CRAB-criteria. With an MRI protocol limited to spine/spine plus pelvis, only 28%/64% of patients who actually had >1 FL in wb-MRI would have been rated correctly as having ‘>1 FL in MRI’. Fifty-four percent/36% of patients with exactly 1 FL in spine/spine plus pelvis revealed >1 FL when the entire wb-MRI was analyzed. During follow-up, four more patients developed >1 FL in wb-MRI; both limited MRI protocols would have detected only one of these four patients as having >1 FL at the correct timepoint. Having >1 FL in spine/in spine plus pelvis/in the whole body was associated with a 43%/57%/49% probability of developing CRAB-criteria within 2 years. Patients with >3 FL in spine plus pelvis and patients with >4 FL in the whole body had an 80% probability to develop CRAB-criteria within 2 years. MRI protocols limited to the spine or to spine plus pelvis lead to substantial underdiagnoses of patients who actually have >1 FL in wb-MRI at baseline and during follow-up, which influences staging and treatment decisions according to the current SLiM-CRAB criteria. However, given the spatial distribution of FLs and the analysis on clinical course of patients indicates that the cutoff for the number of FLs should be adopted according to the MRI protocol when using MRI for staging in SMM.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Quantitative Biomedicine
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Oncology
Life Sciences > Cancer Research
Uncontrolled Keywords:Cancer Research, Oncology
Language:English
Date:7 September 2020
Deposited On:29 Jan 2021 16:01
Last Modified:01 Feb 2021 16:31
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:2072-6694
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092537
PubMed ID:32906608

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