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Nut consumption and the prevalence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease


Semmler, Georg; Bachmayer, Sebastian; Wernly, Sarah; Wernly, Bernhard; Niederseer, David; Huber-Schönauer, Ursula; Stickel, Felix; Aigner, Elmar; Datz, Christian (2020). Nut consumption and the prevalence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PLoS ONE, 15(12):e0244514.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Nut consumption has been associated with reduced inflammation, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. However, the influence on the prevalence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has yet to be evaluated.

METHODS

4655 subjects were included as part of a colorectal carcinoma screening program (SAKKOPI) between 07/2010 and 07/2019 and analyzed 2020. Patients were characterized using biochemical and metabolic parameters, as well as a detailed questionnaire on dietary habits. The diagnosis of NAFLD was established using abdominal ultrasound. Consumption of nuts was graded as: no consumption or <1 time/week, 1-6 times/week, 1 time/day and ≥2 times/day.

RESULTS

Mean age was 58.5±9.8years with a mean BMI of 26.5±4.7kg/m2. 2058 (44.2%) patients suffered from the metabolic syndrome, 2407 (51.6%) had arterial hypertension, 2287 (49.1%) showed prediabetes/diabetes, 1854 (39.4%) had dyslipidemia and 1984 patients (43.5%) were diagnosed with NAFLD. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (1219 [48.7%] vs. 605 [40.2%] vs. 189 [37.4%] vs. 45 [31.7%], p<0.001) and NALFD (1184 [48.1%] vs. 594 [40.7%] vs. 158 [31.7%] vs. 48 [34.0%], p<0.001). On multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders and dietary patterns, nut consumption ≥1time/day was inversely associated with NAFLD in the overall cohort (adjusted Odds ratio[aOR]: 0.719 [95%CI:0.558-0.926], p = 0.011). However, following subgroup analysis, this inverse association was only confirmed in male patients (aOR: 0.589 [95%CI: 0.411-0.844], p = 0.004) but not in females (aOR: 0.886 [95%CI: 0.616-1.275], p = 0.515). Moreover, patients who consumed nuts 1-6 times/week had a significantly lower prevalence of advanced fibrosis (Fib-4 score >2.67: aOR: 0.551 [95%CI: 0.338-0.898], p = 0.017; Forns-Index >6.9: aOR: 0.585 [95%CI: 0.402-0.850], p = 0.005).

CONCLUSIONS

Nut consumption might exert beneficial effects on the prevalence of NAFLD in males. The negative association with advanced fibrosis warrants further investigation.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Nut consumption has been associated with reduced inflammation, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. However, the influence on the prevalence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has yet to be evaluated.

METHODS

4655 subjects were included as part of a colorectal carcinoma screening program (SAKKOPI) between 07/2010 and 07/2019 and analyzed 2020. Patients were characterized using biochemical and metabolic parameters, as well as a detailed questionnaire on dietary habits. The diagnosis of NAFLD was established using abdominal ultrasound. Consumption of nuts was graded as: no consumption or <1 time/week, 1-6 times/week, 1 time/day and ≥2 times/day.

RESULTS

Mean age was 58.5±9.8years with a mean BMI of 26.5±4.7kg/m2. 2058 (44.2%) patients suffered from the metabolic syndrome, 2407 (51.6%) had arterial hypertension, 2287 (49.1%) showed prediabetes/diabetes, 1854 (39.4%) had dyslipidemia and 1984 patients (43.5%) were diagnosed with NAFLD. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (1219 [48.7%] vs. 605 [40.2%] vs. 189 [37.4%] vs. 45 [31.7%], p<0.001) and NALFD (1184 [48.1%] vs. 594 [40.7%] vs. 158 [31.7%] vs. 48 [34.0%], p<0.001). On multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders and dietary patterns, nut consumption ≥1time/day was inversely associated with NAFLD in the overall cohort (adjusted Odds ratio[aOR]: 0.719 [95%CI:0.558-0.926], p = 0.011). However, following subgroup analysis, this inverse association was only confirmed in male patients (aOR: 0.589 [95%CI: 0.411-0.844], p = 0.004) but not in females (aOR: 0.886 [95%CI: 0.616-1.275], p = 0.515). Moreover, patients who consumed nuts 1-6 times/week had a significantly lower prevalence of advanced fibrosis (Fib-4 score >2.67: aOR: 0.551 [95%CI: 0.338-0.898], p = 0.017; Forns-Index >6.9: aOR: 0.585 [95%CI: 0.402-0.850], p = 0.005).

CONCLUSIONS

Nut consumption might exert beneficial effects on the prevalence of NAFLD in males. The negative association with advanced fibrosis warrants further investigation.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Cardiology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Life Sciences > General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Health Sciences > Multidisciplinary
Language:German
Date:2020
Deposited On:02 Feb 2021 07:23
Last Modified:03 Mar 2021 14:55
Publisher:Public Library of Science (PLoS)
ISSN:1932-6203
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0244514
PubMed ID:33382757

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