The hornwort Anthoceros agrestis is emerging as a model system for the study of symbiotic interactions and carbon fixation processes. It is an annual species with a remarkably small and compact genome. Single accessions of the plant have been shown to be related to the cosmopolitan perennial hornwort Anthoceros punctatus. We provide the first detailed insight into the evolutionary history of the two species. Due to the rather conserved nature of organellar loci, we sequenced multiple accessions in the Anthoceros agrestis–A. punctatus complex using three nuclear regions: the ribosomal spacer ITS2, and exon and intron regions from the single-copy coding genes rbcS and phytochrome. We used phylogenetic and dating analyses to uncover the relationships between these two taxa. Our analyses resolve a lineage of genetically near-uniform European A. agrestis accessions and two non-European A. agrestis lineages. In addition, the cosmopolitan species Anthoceros punctatus forms two lineages, one of mostly European accessions, and another from India. All studied European A. agrestis accessions have a single origin, radiated relatively recently (less than 1 million years ago), and are currently strictly associated with agroecosystem habitats.