The impact of clinical characteristics for predicting patterns of ventricular involvement in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) are not well defined. The aims of this study were to characterize different patterns of ventricular involvement in patients with ARVC and to stratify them based on clinical characteristics exercise and underlying genetic mutations.
Sixty-four patients with definite ARVC from the Swiss ARVC Registry were enrolled. Right and left ventricular functions were assessed at baseline and most recent follow-up. All patients received genetic testing. Serum high-sensitivity cardiac Troponin T (hs-cTNT) and N-terminal of pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were determined at baseline.
Thirty-five patients (55%) had isolated right ventricular (RV) involvement, 12 patients (19%) had biventricular (BiV) involvement at baseline and 17 patients (26%) had no left ventricular (LV) involvement at baseline, but revealed new onset LV involvement at mean follow-up of 7.5 years. Patients with BiV involvement at baseline harbored significantly more desmoplakin and multiple mutations and patients with new-onset LV involvement at follow-up frequently showed non-desmosomal mutations. Patients engaging in competitive sports more often showed LV involvement during follow-up. Baseline hs-cTNT and NT-proBNP levels were higher in patients developing BiV involvement.
Multiple mutations are more common in ARVC patients with BiV involvement. Competitive exercise is associated with disease progression resulting in BiV involvement. Hs-cTNT and NT-proBNP are elevated in patients with BiV involvement and may help to identify ARVC patients at risk for developing BiV disease.