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Real-time observation of ligand-induced allosteric transitions in a PDZ domain


Bozovic, Olga; Zanobini, Claudio; Gulzar, Adnan; Jankovic, Brankica; Buhrke, David; Post, Matthias; Wolf, Steffen; Stock, Gerhard; Hamm, Peter (2020). Real-time observation of ligand-induced allosteric transitions in a PDZ domain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(42):26031-26039.

Abstract

While allostery is of paramount importance for protein regulation, the underlying dynamical process of ligand (un)binding at one site, resulting time evolution of the protein structure, and change of the binding affinity at a remote site are not well understood. Here the ligand-induced conformational transition in a widely studied model system of allostery, the PDZ2 domain, is investigated by transient infrared spectroscopy accompanied by molecular dynamics simulations. To this end, an azobenzene-derived photoswitch is linked to a peptide ligand in a way that its binding affinity to the PDZ2 domain changes upon switching, thus initiating an allosteric transition in the PDZ2 domain protein. The subsequent response of the protein, covering four decades of time, ranging from ∼1 ns to ∼μs, can be rationalized by a remodeling of its rugged free-energy landscape, with very subtle shifts in the populations of a small number of structurally well-defined states. It is proposed that structurally and dynamically driven allostery, often discussed as limiting scenarios of allosteric communication, actually go hand-in-hand, allowing the protein to adapt its free-energy landscape to incoming signals.

Abstract

While allostery is of paramount importance for protein regulation, the underlying dynamical process of ligand (un)binding at one site, resulting time evolution of the protein structure, and change of the binding affinity at a remote site are not well understood. Here the ligand-induced conformational transition in a widely studied model system of allostery, the PDZ2 domain, is investigated by transient infrared spectroscopy accompanied by molecular dynamics simulations. To this end, an azobenzene-derived photoswitch is linked to a peptide ligand in a way that its binding affinity to the PDZ2 domain changes upon switching, thus initiating an allosteric transition in the PDZ2 domain protein. The subsequent response of the protein, covering four decades of time, ranging from ∼1 ns to ∼μs, can be rationalized by a remodeling of its rugged free-energy landscape, with very subtle shifts in the populations of a small number of structurally well-defined states. It is proposed that structurally and dynamically driven allostery, often discussed as limiting scenarios of allosteric communication, actually go hand-in-hand, allowing the protein to adapt its free-energy landscape to incoming signals.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:540 Chemistry
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Multidisciplinary
Uncontrolled Keywords:Multidisciplinary
Language:English
Date:20 October 2020
Deposited On:02 Feb 2021 12:43
Last Modified:01 Jul 2021 17:40
Publisher:National Academy of Sciences
ISSN:0027-8424
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2012999117
PubMed ID:33020277

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