Adhesion science is one of the greatest contributions to restorative dentistry. Adhesion not only established the current principles of tissue preservation, but also allowed for the production of more hermetic and long-lasting restorations. Although adhesive strategies are routinely used in most clinical situations, adhesion to root dentin is still a major challenge. The presence of humidity together with less intertubular dentin are factors that limit the adhesive potential of root dentin. This situation is more unfavorable in endodontically treated teeth prepared for prefabricated or custom-made intraradicular posts; these procedures may alter the mechanical properties of teeth by modifying the viable dentin surface for adhesion. Also, contaminants deposited on the dentin surface are difficult to remove through conventional techniques. Moreover, root canal morphology has a very unfavorable C-factor, bringing undesirable effects resulting from polymerization contraction of resin-based materials. However, the differences between coronal and root dentin are not a barrier for dentin adhesion. Standardization of procedures and care during clinical steps are fundamental to the success of adhesion to coronal or intraradicular dentin. Thus, it is essential to know the anatomy of the root structure, the factors that interfere with intraradicular adhesion, as well as the current adhesive materials and techniques.