Among the broad applicability of peptides in numerous aspects of life and technologies, their interactions with lead (Pb), one of the most harmful substances to the environment and health, are constantly explored. So far, peptides were developed for environmental remediation of Pb-contaminations by various strategies such as hydrogelation and surface display. They were also designed for Pb detection and sensing by electrochemical and fluorescent methods and for modeling natural proteins that involve in mechanisms by which Pb is toxic. This review aims at summarizing selected examples of these applications, manifesting the enormous potential of peptides in the combat against Pb pollution. Nevertheless, the absence of new medicinal treatments against Pb poisoning that are based on peptides is noticeable. An overview of previous achievements utilizing Pb-peptide interactions towards various goals is presented and can be therefore leveraged to construct a useful toolbox for the design of smart peptides as next-generation therapeutics against Pb.