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Adjuvants in clinical regional anesthesia practice: A comprehensive review


Prabhakar, Amit; Lambert, Todd; Kaye, Rachel J; Gaignard, Scott M; Ragusa, Joseph; Wheat, Shannon; Moll, Vanessa; Cornett, Elyse M; Urman, Richard D; Kaye, Alan David (2019). Adjuvants in clinical regional anesthesia practice: A comprehensive review. Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology, 33(4):415-423.

Abstract

Adjuvants are medications that work synergistically with local anesthetics to help enhance the duration and quality of analgesia in regional techniques. Regional anesthesia has become more prevalent as evidence continues to show efficacy, enhancement of patient care, increased patient satisfaction, and improved patient safety. Practitioners in the perioperative setting need to not only be familiar with regional techniques but also the medications used for them. Some examples of adjuvant medications for regional techniques include dexamethasone, alpha 2 agonists such as clonidine and dexmedetomidine, midazolam, buprenorphine, NMDA antagonists, including ketamine and magnesium, neostigmine, sodium bicarbonate, epinephrine, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The aim of the present investigation, therefore, is to provide a comprehensive review of the most commonly used non-opioid adjuvants in clinical practice today. Regional adjuvants can improve patient safety, increase patient satisfaction, and enhance clinical efficacy. Future studies and best practice techniques can facilitate standardization of regional anesthesia adjuvant dosing when providing nerve blocks in clinical practice.

Abstract

Adjuvants are medications that work synergistically with local anesthetics to help enhance the duration and quality of analgesia in regional techniques. Regional anesthesia has become more prevalent as evidence continues to show efficacy, enhancement of patient care, increased patient satisfaction, and improved patient safety. Practitioners in the perioperative setting need to not only be familiar with regional techniques but also the medications used for them. Some examples of adjuvant medications for regional techniques include dexamethasone, alpha 2 agonists such as clonidine and dexmedetomidine, midazolam, buprenorphine, NMDA antagonists, including ketamine and magnesium, neostigmine, sodium bicarbonate, epinephrine, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The aim of the present investigation, therefore, is to provide a comprehensive review of the most commonly used non-opioid adjuvants in clinical practice today. Regional adjuvants can improve patient safety, increase patient satisfaction, and enhance clinical efficacy. Future studies and best practice techniques can facilitate standardization of regional anesthesia adjuvant dosing when providing nerve blocks in clinical practice.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Anesthesiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Uncontrolled Keywords:Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Language:English
Date:1 December 2019
Deposited On:03 Feb 2021 16:05
Last Modified:04 Feb 2021 21:01
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1521-6896
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpa.2019.06.001
PubMed ID:31791560

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