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Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Infection and Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma


Oluoch, Peter O; Oduor, Cliff I; Forconi, Catherine S; Ong’echa, John M; Münz, Christian; Dittmer, Dirk P; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Moormann, Ann M (2020). Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Infection and Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 222(1):111-120.

Abstract

Background: Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum malaria coinfections. However, the role of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also endemic in Africa, has not been evaluated as a cofactor in eBL pathogenesis.

Methods: Multiplexed seroprofiles for EBV, malaria, and KSHV were generated for 266 eBL patients, 78 non-eBL cancers, and 202 healthy children. KSHV and EBV loads were quantified by PCR.

Results: KSHV seroprevalence did not differ by study group but was associated with age. Seropositivity, defined by K8.1/LANA or in combination with 5 other KSHV antigens (ORF59, ORF65, ORF61, ORF38, and K5) was associated with antimalarial antibody levels to AMA1 (odds ratio [OR], 2.41, P < .001; OR, 2.07, P < .001) and MSP1 (OR, 2.41, P = .0006; OR, 5.78, P < .001), respectively. KSHV loads did not correlate with antibody levels nor differ across groups but were significantly lower in children with detectable EBV viremia (P = .014).

Conclusions: Although KSHV-EBV dual infection does not increase eBL risk, EBV appears to suppress reactivation of KSHV while malaria exposure is associated with KSHV infection and/or reactivation. Both EBV and malaria should, therefore, be considered as potential effect modifiers for KSHV-associated cancers in sub-Saharan Africa.

Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum malaria; Epstein-Barr virus; Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; Kenya; endemic Burkitt lymphoma.

Abstract

Background: Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum malaria coinfections. However, the role of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also endemic in Africa, has not been evaluated as a cofactor in eBL pathogenesis.

Methods: Multiplexed seroprofiles for EBV, malaria, and KSHV were generated for 266 eBL patients, 78 non-eBL cancers, and 202 healthy children. KSHV and EBV loads were quantified by PCR.

Results: KSHV seroprevalence did not differ by study group but was associated with age. Seropositivity, defined by K8.1/LANA or in combination with 5 other KSHV antigens (ORF59, ORF65, ORF61, ORF38, and K5) was associated with antimalarial antibody levels to AMA1 (odds ratio [OR], 2.41, P < .001; OR, 2.07, P < .001) and MSP1 (OR, 2.41, P = .0006; OR, 5.78, P < .001), respectively. KSHV loads did not correlate with antibody levels nor differ across groups but were significantly lower in children with detectable EBV viremia (P = .014).

Conclusions: Although KSHV-EBV dual infection does not increase eBL risk, EBV appears to suppress reactivation of KSHV while malaria exposure is associated with KSHV infection and/or reactivation. Both EBV and malaria should, therefore, be considered as potential effect modifiers for KSHV-associated cancers in sub-Saharan Africa.

Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum malaria; Epstein-Barr virus; Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; Kenya; endemic Burkitt lymphoma.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Experimental Immunology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Immunology and Allergy
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Uncontrolled Keywords:Immunology and Allergy, Infectious Diseases
Language:English
Date:16 June 2020
Deposited On:04 Feb 2021 14:24
Last Modified:05 Feb 2021 21:05
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0022-1899
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa060
PubMed ID:32072172

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