Newly diagnosed high grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients are treated with radical surgery followed by adjuvant platinum and taxane combination chemotherapy. In EOC patients where upfront surgery is contraindicated for medical reasons (e.g., comorbidities or poor performance status), or where complete cytoreduction cannot be achieved, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) prior to interval debulking surgery (IDS), and adjuvant chemotherapy is an alternative therapeutic option. There is currently a lack of consensus about who are the best candidates to receive NACT, and some authors have even suggested that this approach could be harmful in a subset of patients via promotion of early chemoresistance. Standard and novel imaging techniques together with a better molecular characterization of the disease have the potential to improve selection of patients, but ultimately well designed randomised clinical trials are needed to guide treatment decisions in this setting. The advent of new and effective treatment options (antiangiogenics and PARP inhibitors), now approved for use in the first line and relapse settings has opened the way to clinical trials aiming to investigate these agents as substitute or in addition to chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting in molecularly selected EOC patients. Here, we will review the evidence supporting the use of NACT in newly diagnosed EOCs, data highlighting the importance of its use in selected patients, new imaging methodologies and biomarkers that can guide patient selection.