Background For olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB), the combination of surgical tumor resection and radiation therapy (RT) has been considered the “gold standard” in treatment protocols intended to cure.
Objective To summarize evidence on the treatment of ONB using surgery alone.
Methods A retrospective institutional case series, a systematic review of the literature, and an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis on only surgically treated ONB patients.
Results At our institution, a total of 10 patients were treated through surgery alone and remained alive and free of disease at last follow-up. The IPD meta-analysis on 128 patients revealed a disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of 67.7% and 75.4% at 5 years and 57.1% and 71.9% at 10 years, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that Kadish stage C/D and Hyams grading III//IV significantly affected OS (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000) and DFS (P = 0.000 and P = 0.002). For low-risk patients, the DFS was 80.6% at 5 years and 67.8% at 10 years, respectively.
Conclusions Surgery alone is an equivalent alternative to combined treatment in carefully selected low-risk ONB patients with better outcome measures than previously reported. </jats:sec>