This review starts describing traditional Mediterranean, Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine systems. Then, the “psycho-neuro-endocrine-immunology” paradigm is examined and reasons for its increasing popularity in biological and medical scientific sciences. In particular, we focus on how this paradigm helps to understand and integrate in a modern view some seminal observations and symbolic languages from the past. Thanks to current technological possibilities, the future challenge will be to conduct medical and biological forefront research, able to successfully integrate traditional medicine into the newest therapeutic schemes. In conclusion, we propose some epistemological considerations based on different examples of therapeutic integration.