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The Fluoride Anion-Catalyzed Sulfurization of Thioketones with Elemental Sulfur Leading to Sulfur-Rich Heterocycles: First Sulfurization of Thiochalcones


Mlostoń, Grzegorz; Wreczycki, Jakub; Urbaniak, Katarzyna; Bielinski, Dariusz M; Heimgartner, Heinz (2021). The Fluoride Anion-Catalyzed Sulfurization of Thioketones with Elemental Sulfur Leading to Sulfur-Rich Heterocycles: First Sulfurization of Thiochalcones. Molecules, 26:822.

Abstract

Fluoride anion was demonstrated as a superior activator of elemental sulfur (S8) to perform sulfurization of thioketones leading to diverse sulfur-rich heterocycles. Due to solubility problems, reactions must be carried out either in THF using tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) or in DMF using cesium fluoride (CsF), respectively. The reactive sulfurizing reagents are in situ generated,nucleophilic fluoropolysulfide anions FS(8−x)−, which react with the C=S bond according to the car- bophilic addition mode. Dithiiranes formed thereby, existing in an equilibrium with the ring-opened form (diradicals/zwitterions) are key-intermediates, which undergo either a step-wise dimerization to afford 1,2,4,5-tetrathianes or an intramolecular insertion, leading in the case of thioxo derivatives of 2,2,4,4-tetramethylcyclobutane-1,3-dione to ring enlarged products. In reactions catalyzed by TBAF, water bounded to fluoride anion via H-bridges and forming thereby its stable hydrates is involved in secondary reactions leading, e.g., in the case of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-3-thioxocyclobutanone to the formation of some unexpected products such as the ring enlarged dithiolactone and ring-opened dithiocarboxylate. In contrast to thioketones, the fluoride anion catalyzed sulfurization of their α,β-unsaturated analogues, i.e., thiochalcones is slow and inefficient. However, an alternative protocol with triphenylphosphine (PPh3) applied as a catalyst, offers an attractive approach to the synthesis of 3H-1,2-dithioles via 1,5-dipolar electrocyclization of the in situ-generated α,β-unsaturated thiocabonyl S-sulfides. All reactions occur under mild conditions and can be considered as attractive methods for the preparation of sulfur rich heterocycles with diverse ring-size.

Abstract

Fluoride anion was demonstrated as a superior activator of elemental sulfur (S8) to perform sulfurization of thioketones leading to diverse sulfur-rich heterocycles. Due to solubility problems, reactions must be carried out either in THF using tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) or in DMF using cesium fluoride (CsF), respectively. The reactive sulfurizing reagents are in situ generated,nucleophilic fluoropolysulfide anions FS(8−x)−, which react with the C=S bond according to the car- bophilic addition mode. Dithiiranes formed thereby, existing in an equilibrium with the ring-opened form (diradicals/zwitterions) are key-intermediates, which undergo either a step-wise dimerization to afford 1,2,4,5-tetrathianes or an intramolecular insertion, leading in the case of thioxo derivatives of 2,2,4,4-tetramethylcyclobutane-1,3-dione to ring enlarged products. In reactions catalyzed by TBAF, water bounded to fluoride anion via H-bridges and forming thereby its stable hydrates is involved in secondary reactions leading, e.g., in the case of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-3-thioxocyclobutanone to the formation of some unexpected products such as the ring enlarged dithiolactone and ring-opened dithiocarboxylate. In contrast to thioketones, the fluoride anion catalyzed sulfurization of their α,β-unsaturated analogues, i.e., thiochalcones is slow and inefficient. However, an alternative protocol with triphenylphosphine (PPh3) applied as a catalyst, offers an attractive approach to the synthesis of 3H-1,2-dithioles via 1,5-dipolar electrocyclization of the in situ-generated α,β-unsaturated thiocabonyl S-sulfides. All reactions occur under mild conditions and can be considered as attractive methods for the preparation of sulfur rich heterocycles with diverse ring-size.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:540 Chemistry
Language:English
Date:5 February 2021
Deposited On:05 Feb 2021 16:44
Last Modified:05 Feb 2021 16:45
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:1420-3049
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26040822
Project Information:
  • : FunderNational Science Center (Cracow, Poland)
  • : Grant IDGrant Beethoven-2, #2016/23/G/ST5/04115/l)
  • : Project Title

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