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Enlarged perivascular spaces in multiple sclerosis on magnetic resonance imaging: a systematic review and meta-analysis


Granberg, Tobias; Moridi, Thomas; Brand, Judith S; Neumann, Susanne; Hlavica, Martin; Piehl, Fredrik; Ineichen, Benjamin V (2020). Enlarged perivascular spaces in multiple sclerosis on magnetic resonance imaging: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Neurology, 267(11):3199-3212.

Abstract

Background: Perivascular spaces can become detectable on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) upon enlargement, referred to as enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) or Virchow-Robin spaces. EPVS have been linked to small vessel disease. Some studies have also indicated an association of EPVS to neuroinflammation and/or neurodegeneration. However, there is conflicting evidence with regards to their potential as a clinically relevant imaging biomarker in multiple sclerosis (MS).

Methods: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of EPVS as visualized by MRI in MS. Nine out of 299 original studies addressing EPVS in humans using MRI were eligible for the systematic review and meta-analysis including a total of 457 MS patients and 352 control subjects.

Results: In MS, EPVS have been associated with cognitive decline, contrast-enhancing MRI lesions, and brain atrophy. Yet, these associations were not consistent between studies. The meta-analysis revealed that MS patients have greater EPVS prevalence (odds ratio = 4.61, 95% CI = [1.84; 11.60], p = 0.001) as well as higher EPVS counts (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.46, 95% CI = [0.26; 0.67], p < 0.001) and larger volumes (SMD = 0.88, 95% CI = [0.19; 1.56], p = 0.01) compared to controls.

Conclusions: Available literature suggests a higher EPVS burden in MS patients compared to controls. The association of EPVS to neuroinflammatory or -degenerative pathology in MS remains inconsistent. Thus, there is currently insufficient evidence supporting EPVS as diagnostic and/or prognostic marker in MS. In order to benefit future comparisons of studies, we propose recommendations on EPVS assessment standardization in MS. PROSPERO No: CRD42019133946.

Keywords: Biomarker; Enlarged perivascular spaces; Magnetic resonance imaging; Meta-analysis; Multiple sclerosis; Systematic review.

Abstract

Background: Perivascular spaces can become detectable on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) upon enlargement, referred to as enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) or Virchow-Robin spaces. EPVS have been linked to small vessel disease. Some studies have also indicated an association of EPVS to neuroinflammation and/or neurodegeneration. However, there is conflicting evidence with regards to their potential as a clinically relevant imaging biomarker in multiple sclerosis (MS).

Methods: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of EPVS as visualized by MRI in MS. Nine out of 299 original studies addressing EPVS in humans using MRI were eligible for the systematic review and meta-analysis including a total of 457 MS patients and 352 control subjects.

Results: In MS, EPVS have been associated with cognitive decline, contrast-enhancing MRI lesions, and brain atrophy. Yet, these associations were not consistent between studies. The meta-analysis revealed that MS patients have greater EPVS prevalence (odds ratio = 4.61, 95% CI = [1.84; 11.60], p = 0.001) as well as higher EPVS counts (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.46, 95% CI = [0.26; 0.67], p < 0.001) and larger volumes (SMD = 0.88, 95% CI = [0.19; 1.56], p = 0.01) compared to controls.

Conclusions: Available literature suggests a higher EPVS burden in MS patients compared to controls. The association of EPVS to neuroinflammatory or -degenerative pathology in MS remains inconsistent. Thus, there is currently insufficient evidence supporting EPVS as diagnostic and/or prognostic marker in MS. In order to benefit future comparisons of studies, we propose recommendations on EPVS assessment standardization in MS. PROSPERO No: CRD42019133946.

Keywords: Biomarker; Enlarged perivascular spaces; Magnetic resonance imaging; Meta-analysis; Multiple sclerosis; Systematic review.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neuroradiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Neurology
Health Sciences > Neurology (clinical)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Neurology, Clinical Neurology
Language:English
Date:1 November 2020
Deposited On:08 Feb 2021 07:25
Last Modified:10 Feb 2021 07:04
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0340-5354
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-09971-5
PubMed ID:32535680

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