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Changes in NAD and lipid metabolism drive acidosis-induced acute kidney injury


Bugarski, Milica; Ghazi, Susan; Polesel, Marcello; Martins, Joana R; Hall, Andrew M (2021). Changes in NAD and lipid metabolism drive acidosis-induced acute kidney injury. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (JASN), 32(2):342-356.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The kidney plays an important role in maintaining normal blood pH. Metabolic acidosis (MA) upregulates the pathway that mitochondria in the proximal tubule (PT) use to produce ammonia and bicarbonate from glutamine, and is associated with AKI. However, the extent to which MA causes AKI, and thus whether treating MA would be beneficial, is unclear.
METHODS: Gavage with ammonium chloride induced acute MA. Multiphoton imaging of mitochondria (NADH/membrane potential) and transport function (dextran/albumin uptake), oxygen consumption rate (OCR) measurements in isolated tubules, histologic analysis, and electron microscopy in fixed tissue, and urinary biomarkers (KIM-1/clara cell 16) assessed tubular cell structure and function in mouse kidney cortex.
RESULTS: MA induces an acute change in NAD redox state (toward oxidation) in PT mitochondria, without changing the mitochondrial energization state. This change is associated with a switch toward complex I activity and decreased maximal OCR, and a major alteration in normal lipid metabolism, resulting in marked lipid accumulation in PTs and the formation of large multilamellar bodies. These changes, in turn, lead to acute tubular damage and a severe defect in solute uptake. Increasing blood pH with intravenous bicarbonate substantially improves tubular function, whereas preinjection with the NAD precursor nicotinamide (NAM) is highly protective.
CONCLUSIONS. MA induces AKI via changes in PT NAD and lipid metabolism, which can be reversed or prevented by treatment strategies that are viable in humans. These findings might also help to explain why MA accelerates decline in function in CKD.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The kidney plays an important role in maintaining normal blood pH. Metabolic acidosis (MA) upregulates the pathway that mitochondria in the proximal tubule (PT) use to produce ammonia and bicarbonate from glutamine, and is associated with AKI. However, the extent to which MA causes AKI, and thus whether treating MA would be beneficial, is unclear.
METHODS: Gavage with ammonium chloride induced acute MA. Multiphoton imaging of mitochondria (NADH/membrane potential) and transport function (dextran/albumin uptake), oxygen consumption rate (OCR) measurements in isolated tubules, histologic analysis, and electron microscopy in fixed tissue, and urinary biomarkers (KIM-1/clara cell 16) assessed tubular cell structure and function in mouse kidney cortex.
RESULTS: MA induces an acute change in NAD redox state (toward oxidation) in PT mitochondria, without changing the mitochondrial energization state. This change is associated with a switch toward complex I activity and decreased maximal OCR, and a major alteration in normal lipid metabolism, resulting in marked lipid accumulation in PTs and the formation of large multilamellar bodies. These changes, in turn, lead to acute tubular damage and a severe defect in solute uptake. Increasing blood pH with intravenous bicarbonate substantially improves tubular function, whereas preinjection with the NAD precursor nicotinamide (NAM) is highly protective.
CONCLUSIONS. MA induces AKI via changes in PT NAD and lipid metabolism, which can be reversed or prevented by treatment strategies that are viable in humans. These findings might also help to explain why MA accelerates decline in function in CKD.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Anatomy
04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Nephrology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:29 January 2021
Deposited On:08 Feb 2021 16:31
Last Modified:08 Feb 2021 16:32
Publisher:American Society of Nephrology
ISSN:1046-6673
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020071003
PubMed ID:33478973

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