Regular moderate physical activity (PA) has been linked to beneficial adaptations in various somatic diseases (e.g. cancer, endocrinological disorders) and a reduction in all-cause mortality from several cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric diseases. This study was designed to investigate acute and prolonged exercise-induced cardio- and neurophysiological responses in endurance runners competing in the Munich Marathon. ReCaP (Running effects on Cognition and Plasticity) is a multimodal and longitudinal experimental study. This study included 100 participants (20-60 years). Six laboratory visits were included during the 3-month period before and the 3-month period after the Munich marathon. The multimodal assessment included laboratory measurements, cardiac and cranial imaging (MRI scans, ultrasound/echocardiography) and neurophysiological methods (EEG and TMS/tDCS), and vessel-analysis (e.g. retinal vessels and wave-reflection analyses) and neurocognitive measurements. The ReCaP study was designed to examine novel exercise-induced cardio- and neurophysiological responses to marathon running at the behavioral, functional and morphological levels. This study will expand our understanding of exercise-induced adaptations and will lead to more individually tailored therapeutic options.