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Support of BCP-ALL-cells by autologous bone marrow Th-cells involves induction of AID expression but not widespread AID off-target mutagenesis


Traxel, Sabrina; Lehmann, Julia; Richard, Stefanie; Sidorov, Semjon; Niggli, Felix; Berger, Christoph; Nadal, David; Bürgler, Simone (2021). Support of BCP-ALL-cells by autologous bone marrow Th-cells involves induction of AID expression but not widespread AID off-target mutagenesis. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy:Epub ahead of print.

Abstract

B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy. The two-step BCP-ALL pathogenesis requires in utero-induced chromosomal aberrations and additional mutagenic events for overt leukemia. In mouse models, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID/AICDA) was suggested to contribute to BCP-ALL pathogenesis by off-target mutagenic activity. The role of AID in patients, however, remains unclear. Moreover, AID is usually not expressed in precursor B-cells but in germinal center B-cells, where it is induced upon T-helper (Th) cell stimulation. We have previously demonstrated that autologous Th-cells supportively interacted with BCP-ALL-cells. Here, we hypothesize that this interaction additionally induces AID expression in BCP-ALL-cells, leading to off-target mutagenic activity. We show that co-culture with autologous bone marrow Th-cells induced high AICDA expression in primary BCP-ALL-cells. This induction was mediated by a mechanism similar to the induction in mature B-cells involving IL-13/Stat6, CD40L/NF-κB and TGFβ/Smad2/3 signaling. Even though Th-cell-induced AID seemed to be active in vitro in a BCP-ALL reporter cell line, extensive mutational signature analysis revealed no major contribution of AID activity to the mutational landscape in BCP-ALL patients. AID activity was neither detected in mutation clusters nor in known AID targets. Moreover, no recurrently mutated gene showed a relevant enrichment of mutations in the AID motif. Together, the lack of AID-induced mutational consequences argues towards a Th-cell-promoted yet AID-independent BCP-ALL pathogenesis and favors therapeutic research focusing on Th-cell-derived support of BCP-ALL-cells rather than AID-induced effects.

Abstract

B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy. The two-step BCP-ALL pathogenesis requires in utero-induced chromosomal aberrations and additional mutagenic events for overt leukemia. In mouse models, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID/AICDA) was suggested to contribute to BCP-ALL pathogenesis by off-target mutagenic activity. The role of AID in patients, however, remains unclear. Moreover, AID is usually not expressed in precursor B-cells but in germinal center B-cells, where it is induced upon T-helper (Th) cell stimulation. We have previously demonstrated that autologous Th-cells supportively interacted with BCP-ALL-cells. Here, we hypothesize that this interaction additionally induces AID expression in BCP-ALL-cells, leading to off-target mutagenic activity. We show that co-culture with autologous bone marrow Th-cells induced high AICDA expression in primary BCP-ALL-cells. This induction was mediated by a mechanism similar to the induction in mature B-cells involving IL-13/Stat6, CD40L/NF-κB and TGFβ/Smad2/3 signaling. Even though Th-cell-induced AID seemed to be active in vitro in a BCP-ALL reporter cell line, extensive mutational signature analysis revealed no major contribution of AID activity to the mutational landscape in BCP-ALL patients. AID activity was neither detected in mutation clusters nor in known AID targets. Moreover, no recurrently mutated gene showed a relevant enrichment of mutations in the AID motif. Together, the lack of AID-induced mutational consequences argues towards a Th-cell-promoted yet AID-independent BCP-ALL pathogenesis and favors therapeutic research focusing on Th-cell-derived support of BCP-ALL-cells rather than AID-induced effects.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Immunology and Allergy
Life Sciences > Immunology
Health Sciences > Oncology
Life Sciences > Cancer Research
Language:English
Date:28 January 2021
Deposited On:19 Feb 2021 16:30
Last Modified:20 Feb 2021 21:00
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0340-7004
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00262-020-02835-x
PubMed ID:33507341

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