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Organic Cation Transporters in Human Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology


Samodelov, Sophia L; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Gai, Zhibo; Visentin, Michele (2020). Organic Cation Transporters in Human Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(21):7890.

Abstract

Individual cells and epithelia control the chemical exchange with the surrounding environment by the fine-tuned expression, localization, and function of an array of transmembrane proteins that dictate the selective permeability of the lipid bilayer to small molecules, as actual gatekeepers to the interface with the extracellular space. Among the variety of channels, transporters, and pumps that localize to cell membrane, organic cation transporters (OCTs) are considered to be extremely relevant in the transport across the plasma membrane of the majority of the endogenous substances and drugs that are positively charged near or at physiological pH. In humans, the following six organic cation transporters have been characterized in regards to their respective substrates, all belonging to the solute carrier 22 (SLC22) family: the organic cation transporters 1, 2, and 3 (OCT1–3); the organic cation/carnitine transporter novel 1 and 2 (OCTN1 and N2); and the organic cation transporter 6 (OCT6). OCTs are highly expressed on the plasma membrane of polarized epithelia, thus, playing a key role in intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption of nutrients (e.g., choline and carnitine), in the elimination of waste products (e.g., trimethylamine and trimethylamine N-oxide), and in the kinetic profile and therapeutic index of several drugs (e.g., metformin and platinum derivatives). As part of the Special Issue Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology of Transporters for Organic Cations, this article critically presents the physio-pathological, pharmacological, and toxicological roles of OCTs in the tissues in which they are primarily expressed.

Abstract

Individual cells and epithelia control the chemical exchange with the surrounding environment by the fine-tuned expression, localization, and function of an array of transmembrane proteins that dictate the selective permeability of the lipid bilayer to small molecules, as actual gatekeepers to the interface with the extracellular space. Among the variety of channels, transporters, and pumps that localize to cell membrane, organic cation transporters (OCTs) are considered to be extremely relevant in the transport across the plasma membrane of the majority of the endogenous substances and drugs that are positively charged near or at physiological pH. In humans, the following six organic cation transporters have been characterized in regards to their respective substrates, all belonging to the solute carrier 22 (SLC22) family: the organic cation transporters 1, 2, and 3 (OCT1–3); the organic cation/carnitine transporter novel 1 and 2 (OCTN1 and N2); and the organic cation transporter 6 (OCT6). OCTs are highly expressed on the plasma membrane of polarized epithelia, thus, playing a key role in intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption of nutrients (e.g., choline and carnitine), in the elimination of waste products (e.g., trimethylamine and trimethylamine N-oxide), and in the kinetic profile and therapeutic index of several drugs (e.g., metformin and platinum derivatives). As part of the Special Issue Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology of Transporters for Organic Cations, this article critically presents the physio-pathological, pharmacological, and toxicological roles of OCTs in the tissues in which they are primarily expressed.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Catalysis
Life Sciences > Molecular Biology
Physical Sciences > Spectroscopy
Physical Sciences > Computer Science Applications
Physical Sciences > Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
Physical Sciences > Organic Chemistry
Physical Sciences > Inorganic Chemistry
Uncontrolled Keywords:Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Spectroscopy, Molecular Biology, Catalysis, General Medicine, Computer Science Applications
Language:English
Date:24 October 2020
Deposited On:12 Feb 2021 13:01
Last Modified:01 Mar 2021 16:30
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:1422-0067
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21217890
PubMed ID:33114309
Project Information:
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID310030_175639
  • : Project TitleRole of drug transporters and nuclear receptors in drug-induced liver and kidney injury

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