The kidneys utilize roughly 10% of the body’s oxygen supply to produce the energy required for accomplishing their primary function: the regulation of body fluid composition through secreting, filtering, and reabsorbing metabolites and nutrients. To ensure an adequate ATP supply, the kidneys are particularly enriched in mitochondria, having the second highest mitochondrial content and thus oxygen consumption of our body. The bulk of the ATP generated in the kidneys is consumed to move solutes toward (reabsorption) or from (secretion) the peritubular capillaries through the concerted action of an array of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) pumps and transporters. ABC pumps function upon direct ATP hydrolysis. Transporters are driven by the ion electrochemical gradients and the membrane potential generated by the asymmetric transport of ions across the plasma membrane mediated by the ATPase pumps. Some of these transporters, namely the polyspecific organic anion transporters (OATs), the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), and the organic cation transporters (OCTs) are highly expressed on the proximal tubular cell membranes and happen to also transport drugs whose levels in the proximal tubular cells can rapidly rise, thereby damaging the mitochondria and resulting in cell death and kidney injury. Drug-induced kidney injury (DIKI) is a growing public health concern and a major cause of drug attrition in drug development and post-marketing approval. As part of the article collection “Mitochondria in Renal Health and Disease,” here, we provide a critical overview of the main molecular mechanisms underlying the mitochondrial damage caused by drugs inducing nephrotoxicity.