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Duodenal-jejunal bypass improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease independently of weight loss in rodents with diet-induced obesity


Angelini, Giulia; Castagneto-Gissey, Lidia; Casella-Mariolo, James; Caristo, Maria Emiliana; Russo, Maria Francesca; Lembo, Erminia; Verrastro, Ornella; Stefanizzi, Gianluigi; Marini, Pier Luigi; Casella, Giovanni; Bornstein, Stefan R; Rubino, Francesco; Mingrone, Geltrude (2020). Duodenal-jejunal bypass improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease independently of weight loss in rodents with diet-induced obesity. American Journal Of Physiology. Gastrointestinal And Liver Physiology, 319(4):G502-G511.

Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver-related mortality. NAFLD is associated with obesity, hepatic fat accumulation, and insulin resistance, all of which contribute to its pathophysiology. Weight-loss is the main therapy for NAFLD, and metabolic surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity and its metabolic comorbidities. Although has been reported that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass can reverse NAFLD, it is unclear whether such effects result from reduced weight, from a lower calorie-intake, or from the direct influence of surgery on mechanisms contributing to NAFLD. We aimed to investigate whether gastrointestinal (GI) bypass surgery could induce direct effects on hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance, independently of weight reduction. Twenty Wistar rats on a high-fat diet underwent duodenal-jejunal-bypass (DJB) or sham operation and were pair fed (PF) for 15 wk after surgery to obtain a matched weight. Outcome measures include ectopic fat deposition, expression of genes and proteins involved in fat metabolism, insulin-signaling, and gluconeogenesis in liver and muscle. Despite no differences in body weight and calorie intake, DJB showed lower ectopic fat accumulation, improved peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity, and enhanced lipid droplet degradation. In both tissues, DJB increased insulin signaling, whereas hepatic key enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis and de novo lipogenesis were decreased. These findings suggest that DJB can reverse, independently of weight loss, ectopic fat deposition and insulin resistance, two features of NAFLD that share a mutual pathway, in which perilipin-2 (PLIN2) seems to be the main player, supporting further investigation into strategies that target the gut to treat metabolic liver diseases.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our findings suggest that duodenal-jejunal bypass can reverse, independently of weight loss, ectopic fat deposition and insulin resistance, two features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that share a mutual pathway, in which perilipin-2 seems to be the main player. Our study supports further investigation into the role of proximal small intestine exclusion in the pathophysiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to uncover less invasive treatments that mimic the effects of metabolic surgery and aims to prevent and treat metabolic liver disease.

Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver-related mortality. NAFLD is associated with obesity, hepatic fat accumulation, and insulin resistance, all of which contribute to its pathophysiology. Weight-loss is the main therapy for NAFLD, and metabolic surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity and its metabolic comorbidities. Although has been reported that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass can reverse NAFLD, it is unclear whether such effects result from reduced weight, from a lower calorie-intake, or from the direct influence of surgery on mechanisms contributing to NAFLD. We aimed to investigate whether gastrointestinal (GI) bypass surgery could induce direct effects on hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance, independently of weight reduction. Twenty Wistar rats on a high-fat diet underwent duodenal-jejunal-bypass (DJB) or sham operation and were pair fed (PF) for 15 wk after surgery to obtain a matched weight. Outcome measures include ectopic fat deposition, expression of genes and proteins involved in fat metabolism, insulin-signaling, and gluconeogenesis in liver and muscle. Despite no differences in body weight and calorie intake, DJB showed lower ectopic fat accumulation, improved peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity, and enhanced lipid droplet degradation. In both tissues, DJB increased insulin signaling, whereas hepatic key enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis and de novo lipogenesis were decreased. These findings suggest that DJB can reverse, independently of weight loss, ectopic fat deposition and insulin resistance, two features of NAFLD that share a mutual pathway, in which perilipin-2 (PLIN2) seems to be the main player, supporting further investigation into strategies that target the gut to treat metabolic liver diseases.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our findings suggest that duodenal-jejunal bypass can reverse, independently of weight loss, ectopic fat deposition and insulin resistance, two features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that share a mutual pathway, in which perilipin-2 seems to be the main player. Our study supports further investigation into the role of proximal small intestine exclusion in the pathophysiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to uncover less invasive treatments that mimic the effects of metabolic surgery and aims to prevent and treat metabolic liver disease.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Endocrinology and Diabetology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Physiology
Health Sciences > Hepatology
Health Sciences > Gastroenterology
Health Sciences > Physiology (medical)
Language:English
Date:1 October 2020
Deposited On:16 Feb 2021 10:33
Last Modified:17 Feb 2021 21:00
Publisher:American Physiological Society
ISSN:0193-1857
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00357.2019
PubMed ID:32812775

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