Cold smoked salmon and sushi salmon have been implicated in outbreaks of listeriosis. We performed challenge tests and a durability study with Listeria monocytogenes on different salmon products to determine the growth potential of this important food-borne pathogen. Data from the challenge test showed a significant growth potential of L. monocytogenes on all of the tested salmon products, with faster growth in sushi salmon than in cold smoked salmon. In identical products that were naturally contaminated at low levels, the durability study did not confirm a high growth potential, possibly due to interactions with competing microflora. The injection of sodium lactate (NaL) at a high concentration (30%) into cold smoked salmon significantly reduced the growth potential of L. monocytogenes. In addition to good manufacturing practices, the injection of higher concentrations of NaL may therefore be a useful additional hurdle to prevent growth of L. monocytogenes to high numbers in the tested salmon products.