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Clinical application of apheresis in very small dogs weighing <8 kg to pediatric patients


Sekiguchi, Tomoko; Vigani, Alessio; Ripoll, Alexandra Z; Taylor, Scott; Culler, Christine; Suter, Steven E (2020). Clinical application of apheresis in very small dogs weighing <8 kg to pediatric patients. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis, 24(3):333-342.

Abstract

Apheresis in low body weight children and adolescents is challenging due to a variety of technical and clinical issues including vascular access, low total blood volume, and hypotension. Although dogs have been a valuable preclinical model for apheresis, the procedure can be challenging since many pure-bred dogs are extremely small. Therefore, apheresis in these very small breeds presents very similar challenges as seen when performing the procedure in very low body weight people. We describe apheresis of four very small dogs, weighing from 4.6 to 7.6 kg, using either a COBESpectra and Spectra Optia apheresis system (Terumo BCT, Lakewood, CO, USA). Two dogs underwent large volume leukapheresis to collect mononuclear cells in preparation for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and two dogs underwent therapeutic plasma exchange to treat an immune-mediated disease. In all cases, a dual-lumen hemodialysis catheter placed in the jugular vein provided adequate machine inlet and return flow rates. Machine priming was necessary to maintain hemodynamic stability during the beginning of the procedure, and rinseback was avoided for the same reason. Anticoagulant citrate dextrose solution, solution A was used for the large volume leukapheresis procedures and a combination of anticoagulant citrate dextrose solution, solution A and heparin was used for the therapeutic plasma exchange procedures. As such, serum iCa levels were regularly monitored and 10% calcium gluconate constant rate infusions were used to prevent citrate toxicity. All dogs completed the aphereses with no life-threatening adverse events. We conclude that aphereses in very small dogs is feasible if close attention is paid to hemodynamic stability and citrate toxicity.

Abstract

Apheresis in low body weight children and adolescents is challenging due to a variety of technical and clinical issues including vascular access, low total blood volume, and hypotension. Although dogs have been a valuable preclinical model for apheresis, the procedure can be challenging since many pure-bred dogs are extremely small. Therefore, apheresis in these very small breeds presents very similar challenges as seen when performing the procedure in very low body weight people. We describe apheresis of four very small dogs, weighing from 4.6 to 7.6 kg, using either a COBESpectra and Spectra Optia apheresis system (Terumo BCT, Lakewood, CO, USA). Two dogs underwent large volume leukapheresis to collect mononuclear cells in preparation for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and two dogs underwent therapeutic plasma exchange to treat an immune-mediated disease. In all cases, a dual-lumen hemodialysis catheter placed in the jugular vein provided adequate machine inlet and return flow rates. Machine priming was necessary to maintain hemodynamic stability during the beginning of the procedure, and rinseback was avoided for the same reason. Anticoagulant citrate dextrose solution, solution A was used for the large volume leukapheresis procedures and a combination of anticoagulant citrate dextrose solution, solution A and heparin was used for the therapeutic plasma exchange procedures. As such, serum iCa levels were regularly monitored and 10% calcium gluconate constant rate infusions were used to prevent citrate toxicity. All dogs completed the aphereses with no life-threatening adverse events. We conclude that aphereses in very small dogs is feasible if close attention is paid to hemodynamic stability and citrate toxicity.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Small Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Hematology
Health Sciences > Nephrology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Nephrology, Hematology
Language:English
Date:1 June 2020
Deposited On:16 Feb 2021 17:17
Last Modified:17 Feb 2021 21:01
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:1744-9979
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/1744-9987.13432

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