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KCNJ6 variants modulate reward-related brain processes and impact executive functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder


Ziegler, Georg C; Röser, Christoph; Renner, Tobias; Hahn, Tim; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Weber, Heike; Dempfle, Astrid; Walitza, Susanne; Jacob, Christian; Romanos, Marcel; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Reif, Andreas; Lesch, Klaus-Peter (2020). KCNJ6 variants modulate reward-related brain processes and impact executive functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 183(5):247-257.

Abstract

KCNJ6, encoding a potassium channel subunit, regulates the excitability of dopaminergic neurons and is expressed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-relevant brain regions. As a potential ADHD risk gene, KCNJ6, therefore, may contribute to the endophenotypic variation of the disorder. The impact of two SNPs, rs7275707 and rs6517442, both located in the transcriptional control region of KCNJ6, on reporter gene expression was explored in cultured cells. The KCNJ6 variants were then tested for association with ADHD and personality traits in a family-based sample (165 affected children) and an adult case-control sample (450 patients, 426 controls). Furthermore, the genotypic influence on performance in an n-back task and a cued continuous performance test (cCPT) was investigated by electroencephalography recordings. Finally, rs6517442 function was assessed by a reward anticipation paradigm using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Different haplotypes of rs7275707 and rs6517442 significantly influenced KCNJ6 gene expression proving their functional relevance on the molecular level. In the family-based children sample rs7275707 was associated with ADHD (p = .038). Moreover, rs7275707 showed association with the personality trait of Reward Dependence (p = .031). In the ADHD group, both rs7275707 and rs6517442 influenced the Go-centroid location in the cCPT and the N200 amplitude in the n-back task. Furthermore, ventral striatal activation was impacted by rs6517442 during reward anticipation. Our data indicate that functional variants of KCNJ6 influence brain activity during reward-related and executive processes supporting the view of a differential, age-dependent modulatory impact of dopamine-related brain processes in ADHD risk.

Abstract

KCNJ6, encoding a potassium channel subunit, regulates the excitability of dopaminergic neurons and is expressed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-relevant brain regions. As a potential ADHD risk gene, KCNJ6, therefore, may contribute to the endophenotypic variation of the disorder. The impact of two SNPs, rs7275707 and rs6517442, both located in the transcriptional control region of KCNJ6, on reporter gene expression was explored in cultured cells. The KCNJ6 variants were then tested for association with ADHD and personality traits in a family-based sample (165 affected children) and an adult case-control sample (450 patients, 426 controls). Furthermore, the genotypic influence on performance in an n-back task and a cued continuous performance test (cCPT) was investigated by electroencephalography recordings. Finally, rs6517442 function was assessed by a reward anticipation paradigm using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Different haplotypes of rs7275707 and rs6517442 significantly influenced KCNJ6 gene expression proving their functional relevance on the molecular level. In the family-based children sample rs7275707 was associated with ADHD (p = .038). Moreover, rs7275707 showed association with the personality trait of Reward Dependence (p = .031). In the ADHD group, both rs7275707 and rs6517442 influenced the Go-centroid location in the cCPT and the N200 amplitude in the n-back task. Furthermore, ventral striatal activation was impacted by rs6517442 during reward anticipation. Our data indicate that functional variants of KCNJ6 influence brain activity during reward-related and executive processes supporting the view of a differential, age-dependent modulatory impact of dopamine-related brain processes in ADHD risk.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Genetics (clinical)
Health Sciences > Psychiatry and Mental Health
Life Sciences > Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Language:English
Date:July 2020
Deposited On:16 Feb 2021 14:48
Last Modified:17 Feb 2021 21:01
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:1552-4841
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.32734
PubMed ID:31099984

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