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CtIP promotes the motor activity of DNA2 to accelerate long-range DNA end resection


Ceppi, Ilaria; Howard, Sean M; Kasaciunaite, Kristina; Pinto, Cosimo; Anand, Roopesh; Seidel, Ralf; Cejka, Petr (2020). CtIP promotes the motor activity of DNA2 to accelerate long-range DNA end resection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(16):8859-8869.

Abstract

To repair a DNA double-strand break by homologous recombination, 5'-terminated DNA strands must first be resected to reveal 3'-overhangs. This process is initiated by a short-range resection catalyzed by MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) stimulated by CtIP, which is followed by a long-range step involving EXO1 or DNA2 nuclease. DNA2 is a bifunctional enzyme that contains both single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-specific nuclease and motor activities. Upon DNA unwinding by Bloom (BLM) or Werner (WRN) helicase, RPA directs the DNA2 nuclease to degrade the 5'-strand. RPA bound to ssDNA also represents a barrier, explaining the need for the motor activity of DNA2 to displace RPA prior to resection. Using ensemble and single-molecule biochemistry, we show that CtIP also dramatically stimulates the adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis-driven motor activity of DNA2 involved in the long-range resection step. This activation in turn strongly promotes the degradation of RPA-coated ssDNA by DNA2. Accordingly, the stimulatory effect of CtIP is only observed with wild-type DNA2, but not the helicase-deficient variant. Similarly to the function of CtIP to promote MRN, also the DNA2 stimulatory effect is facilitated by CtIP phosphorylation. The domain of CtIP required to promote DNA2 is located in the central region lacking in lower eukaryotes and is fully separable from domains involved in the stimulation of MRN. These results establish how CtIP couples both MRE11-dependent short-range and DNA2-dependent long-range resection and define the involvement of the motor activity of DNA2 in this process. Our data might help explain the less severe resection defects of MRE11 nuclease-deficient cells compared to those lacking CtIP.

Abstract

To repair a DNA double-strand break by homologous recombination, 5'-terminated DNA strands must first be resected to reveal 3'-overhangs. This process is initiated by a short-range resection catalyzed by MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) stimulated by CtIP, which is followed by a long-range step involving EXO1 or DNA2 nuclease. DNA2 is a bifunctional enzyme that contains both single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-specific nuclease and motor activities. Upon DNA unwinding by Bloom (BLM) or Werner (WRN) helicase, RPA directs the DNA2 nuclease to degrade the 5'-strand. RPA bound to ssDNA also represents a barrier, explaining the need for the motor activity of DNA2 to displace RPA prior to resection. Using ensemble and single-molecule biochemistry, we show that CtIP also dramatically stimulates the adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis-driven motor activity of DNA2 involved in the long-range resection step. This activation in turn strongly promotes the degradation of RPA-coated ssDNA by DNA2. Accordingly, the stimulatory effect of CtIP is only observed with wild-type DNA2, but not the helicase-deficient variant. Similarly to the function of CtIP to promote MRN, also the DNA2 stimulatory effect is facilitated by CtIP phosphorylation. The domain of CtIP required to promote DNA2 is located in the central region lacking in lower eukaryotes and is fully separable from domains involved in the stimulation of MRN. These results establish how CtIP couples both MRE11-dependent short-range and DNA2-dependent long-range resection and define the involvement of the motor activity of DNA2 in this process. Our data might help explain the less severe resection defects of MRE11 nuclease-deficient cells compared to those lacking CtIP.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Molecular Cancer Research
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Molecular Cancer Research
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Multidisciplinary
Language:English
Date:21 April 2020
Deposited On:16 Feb 2021 15:02
Last Modified:01 Mar 2021 16:31
Publisher:National Academy of Sciences
ISSN:0027-8424
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2001165117
PubMed ID:32241893

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