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Insomnia symptoms and acute coronary syndrome-induced posttraumatic stress symptoms: a comprehensive analysis of cross-sectional and prospective associations


von Känel, Roland; Meister-Langraf, Rebecca E; Pazhenkottil, Aju P; Barth, Jürgen; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Znoj, Hansjörg; Princip, Mary (2021). Insomnia symptoms and acute coronary syndrome-induced posttraumatic stress symptoms: a comprehensive analysis of cross-sectional and prospective associations. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 55(10):1019-1030.

Abstract

Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) induces clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in 12% of patients. Subjective sleep problems are a risk factor for the development of PTSS, but this is underexplored in patients with ACS.
Purpose: To examine the association of insomnia symptoms with ACS-induced PTSS.
Methods: In this longitudinal study with 154 patients (all white, 84.4% male, mean age 58.7 years) with a verified ACS, insomnia symptoms were interviewer assessed at hospital admission and at 3 months, using the Jenkins Sleep Scale (JSS)-4. ACS-induced PTSS were assessed with the Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale 3 months after hospital admission. In multivariable linear models, insomnia symptoms were regressed on PTSS, adjusting for demographics, clinical variables, health behaviors, and psychological data, including cognitive depressive symptoms.
Results: Greater insomnia symptoms at admission (β = .165, p = .034), greater increase in insomnia symptoms from admission to 3 months (β = .233, p = .008), and greater insomnia symptoms at 3 months (β = .239, p = .002) were independently associated with more severe total PTSS at 3 months. Concerning the individual PTSS clusters, both insomnia symptoms at admission (β = .214, p = .007) and at 3 months (β = .213, p = .012) were independently associated with reeexperiencing symptoms. Removing sleep items from PTSS scores and excluding patients on antidepressants in two sensitivity analyses did not substantially change the results.
Conclusions: Insomnia symptoms could play an important role in the development and severity of ACS-induced PTSS. This relationship seems not simply explained by the fact that sleeping difficulties are inherent to the phenotype of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Clinical trial information: NCT01781247.

Abstract

Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) induces clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in 12% of patients. Subjective sleep problems are a risk factor for the development of PTSS, but this is underexplored in patients with ACS.
Purpose: To examine the association of insomnia symptoms with ACS-induced PTSS.
Methods: In this longitudinal study with 154 patients (all white, 84.4% male, mean age 58.7 years) with a verified ACS, insomnia symptoms were interviewer assessed at hospital admission and at 3 months, using the Jenkins Sleep Scale (JSS)-4. ACS-induced PTSS were assessed with the Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale 3 months after hospital admission. In multivariable linear models, insomnia symptoms were regressed on PTSS, adjusting for demographics, clinical variables, health behaviors, and psychological data, including cognitive depressive symptoms.
Results: Greater insomnia symptoms at admission (β = .165, p = .034), greater increase in insomnia symptoms from admission to 3 months (β = .233, p = .008), and greater insomnia symptoms at 3 months (β = .239, p = .002) were independently associated with more severe total PTSS at 3 months. Concerning the individual PTSS clusters, both insomnia symptoms at admission (β = .214, p = .007) and at 3 months (β = .213, p = .012) were independently associated with reeexperiencing symptoms. Removing sleep items from PTSS scores and excluding patients on antidepressants in two sensitivity analyses did not substantially change the results.
Conclusions: Insomnia symptoms could play an important role in the development and severity of ACS-induced PTSS. This relationship seems not simply explained by the fact that sleeping difficulties are inherent to the phenotype of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Clinical trial information: NCT01781247.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Complementary Medicine
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Klinik für Konsiliarpsychiatrie und Psychosomatik
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Nuclear Medicine
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Cardiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Social Sciences & Humanities > General Psychology
Health Sciences > Psychiatry and Mental Health
Uncontrolled Keywords:General Psychology, Psychiatry and Mental health
Language:English
Date:4 October 2021
Deposited On:19 Feb 2021 16:34
Last Modified:13 Feb 2022 01:00
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0883-6612
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/abm/kaaa128
PubMed ID:33580657

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