The positive effects of light to moderately intensive physical activity during pregnancy are not in question. Corresponding exercise recommendations can be found in national and international guidelines, which show a relatively solid evidence base. However, there are large knowledge gaps with respect to training recommendations for ambitious amateur sportswomen and elite athletes. Therefore, among both athletes and their supporting staff there is a large degree of uncertainty, which sports activity and to what extent it can be maintained safely without risk to the mother and her unborn child. In addition to the consideration of contraindications, where sporting activities must be avoided, there are certain training-associated precautions (e.g. when training at high altitude or in hot conditions) that should be respected. Also, in view of the manifold physiological changes that pregnancy entails (e.g. anatomical, hormonal, metabolic, cardiovascular and pulmonary), competitive sports-oriented training should be directed individually under close observation of mother's and child's well-being.