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Persistent DNA damage triggers activation of the integrated stress response to promote cell survival under nutrient restriction


Clementi, Elena; Inglin, Larissa; Beebe, Erin; Gsell, Corina; Garajova, Zuzana; Markkanen, Enni (2020). Persistent DNA damage triggers activation of the integrated stress response to promote cell survival under nutrient restriction. BMC Biology, 18(1):36.

Abstract

Background

Base-excision repair (BER) is a central DNA repair mechanism responsible for the maintenance of genome integrity. Accordingly, BER defects have been implicated in cancer, presumably by precipitating cellular transformation through an increase in the occurrence of mutations. Hence, tight adaptation of BER capacity is essential for DNA stability. However, counterintuitive to this, prolonged exposure of cells to pro-inflammatory molecules or DNA-damaging agents causes a BER deficiency by downregulating the central scaffold protein XRCC1. The rationale for this XRCC1 downregulation in response to persistent DNA damage remains enigmatic. Based on our previous findings that XRCC1 downregulation causes wide-ranging anabolic changes, we hypothesised that BER depletion could enhance cellular survival under stress, such as nutrient restriction.
Results

Here, we demonstrate that persistent single-strand breaks (SSBs) caused by XRCC1 downregulation trigger the integrated stress response (ISR) to promote cellular survival under nutrient-restricted conditions. ISR activation depends on DNA damage signalling via ATM, which triggers PERK-mediated eIF2α phosphorylation, increasing translation of the stress-response factor ATF4. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SSBs, induced either through depletion of the transcription factor Sp1, responsible for XRCC1 levels, or through prolonged oxidative stress, trigger ISR-mediated cell survival under nutrient restriction as well. Finally, the ISR pathway can also be initiated by persistent DNA double-strand breaks.
Conclusions

Our results uncover a previously unappreciated connection between persistent DNA damage, caused by a decrease in BER capacity or direct induction of DNA damage, and the ISR pathway that supports cell survival in response to genotoxic stress with implications for tumour biology and beyond.

Abstract

Background

Base-excision repair (BER) is a central DNA repair mechanism responsible for the maintenance of genome integrity. Accordingly, BER defects have been implicated in cancer, presumably by precipitating cellular transformation through an increase in the occurrence of mutations. Hence, tight adaptation of BER capacity is essential for DNA stability. However, counterintuitive to this, prolonged exposure of cells to pro-inflammatory molecules or DNA-damaging agents causes a BER deficiency by downregulating the central scaffold protein XRCC1. The rationale for this XRCC1 downregulation in response to persistent DNA damage remains enigmatic. Based on our previous findings that XRCC1 downregulation causes wide-ranging anabolic changes, we hypothesised that BER depletion could enhance cellular survival under stress, such as nutrient restriction.
Results

Here, we demonstrate that persistent single-strand breaks (SSBs) caused by XRCC1 downregulation trigger the integrated stress response (ISR) to promote cellular survival under nutrient-restricted conditions. ISR activation depends on DNA damage signalling via ATM, which triggers PERK-mediated eIF2α phosphorylation, increasing translation of the stress-response factor ATF4. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SSBs, induced either through depletion of the transcription factor Sp1, responsible for XRCC1 levels, or through prolonged oxidative stress, trigger ISR-mediated cell survival under nutrient restriction as well. Finally, the ISR pathway can also be initiated by persistent DNA double-strand breaks.
Conclusions

Our results uncover a previously unappreciated connection between persistent DNA damage, caused by a decrease in BER capacity or direct induction of DNA damage, and the ISR pathway that supports cell survival in response to genotoxic stress with implications for tumour biology and beyond.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Biotechnology
Life Sciences > Structural Biology
Life Sciences > Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Life Sciences > Physiology
Life Sciences > General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Life Sciences > General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Life Sciences > Plant Science
Life Sciences > Developmental Biology
Life Sciences > Cell Biology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Biotechnology, Plant Science, General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Developmental Biology, Cell Biology, Physiology, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics, Structural Biology, General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Language:English
Date:1 December 2020
Deposited On:18 Feb 2021 11:38
Last Modified:19 Feb 2021 21:00
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1741-7007
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00771-x

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