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Determination of novel reference genes for improving gene expression data normalization in selected canine reproductive tissues – a multistudy analysis


Nowak, Marta; Aslan, Selim; Kowalewski, Mariusz P (2020). Determination of novel reference genes for improving gene expression data normalization in selected canine reproductive tissues – a multistudy analysis. BMC Veterinary Research, 16(1):440.

Abstract

Background

Real time RT-PCR (qPCR) is a useful and powerful tool for quantitative measurement of gene expression. The proper choice of internal standards such as reference genes is crucial for correct data evaluation. In female dogs, as in other species, the reproductive tract is continuously undergoing hormonal and cycle stage-dependent morphological changes, which are associated with altered gene expression. However, there have been few attempts published so far targeted to the dog aimed at determining optimal reference genes for the reproductive organs. Most of these approaches relied on genes previously described in other species. Large-scale transcriptome-based experiments are promising tools for defining potential candidate reference genes, but were never considered in this context in canine research.
Results

Here, using available microarray and RNA-seq datasets derived from reproductive organs (corpus luteum, placenta, healthy and diseased uteri) of dogs, we have performed multistudy analysis to identify the most stably expressed genes for expression studies, in each tissue separately and collectively for different tissues. The stability of newly identified reference genes (EIF4H, KDELR2, KDM4A and PTK2) has been determined and ranked relative to previously used reference genes, i.e., GAPDH, β-actin and cyclophillin A/PPIA, using RefFinder and NormFinder algorithms. Finally, expression of selected target genes (luteal IL-1b and MHCII, placental COX2 and VEGFA, and uterine IGF2 and LHR) was re-evaluated and normalized. All proposed candidate reference genes were more stable, ranked higher and introduced less variation than previously used genes.
Conclusions

Based on our analyses, we recommend applying KDM4A and PTK2 for normalization of gene expression in the canine CL and placenta. The inclusion of a third reference gene, EIF4H, is suggested for healthy uteri. With this, the interpretation of qPCR data will be more reliable, allowing better understanding of canine reproductive physiology.

Abstract

Background

Real time RT-PCR (qPCR) is a useful and powerful tool for quantitative measurement of gene expression. The proper choice of internal standards such as reference genes is crucial for correct data evaluation. In female dogs, as in other species, the reproductive tract is continuously undergoing hormonal and cycle stage-dependent morphological changes, which are associated with altered gene expression. However, there have been few attempts published so far targeted to the dog aimed at determining optimal reference genes for the reproductive organs. Most of these approaches relied on genes previously described in other species. Large-scale transcriptome-based experiments are promising tools for defining potential candidate reference genes, but were never considered in this context in canine research.
Results

Here, using available microarray and RNA-seq datasets derived from reproductive organs (corpus luteum, placenta, healthy and diseased uteri) of dogs, we have performed multistudy analysis to identify the most stably expressed genes for expression studies, in each tissue separately and collectively for different tissues. The stability of newly identified reference genes (EIF4H, KDELR2, KDM4A and PTK2) has been determined and ranked relative to previously used reference genes, i.e., GAPDH, β-actin and cyclophillin A/PPIA, using RefFinder and NormFinder algorithms. Finally, expression of selected target genes (luteal IL-1b and MHCII, placental COX2 and VEGFA, and uterine IGF2 and LHR) was re-evaluated and normalized. All proposed candidate reference genes were more stable, ranked higher and introduced less variation than previously used genes.
Conclusions

Based on our analyses, we recommend applying KDM4A and PTK2 for normalization of gene expression in the canine CL and placenta. The inclusion of a third reference gene, EIF4H, is suggested for healthy uteri. With this, the interpretation of qPCR data will be more reliable, allowing better understanding of canine reproductive physiology.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Anatomy
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Veterinary
Uncontrolled Keywords:General Veterinary, General Medicine
Language:English
Date:1 December 2020
Deposited On:18 Feb 2021 11:39
Last Modified:19 Feb 2021 21:00
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1746-6148
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02635-6
Project Information:
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID31003A_182481
  • : Project TitleFeto-maternal communication and endocrine mechanisms involved in induction of parturition in the dog.

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