PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of the remaining dentin thickness after cavity preparation, calcium hydroxide lining, and two restorative systems on the occurrence of postoperative pain or hypersensitivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty-three fillings were placed in 123 healthy patients. The remaining dentin thickness after caries excavation was measured with the Prepometer device at the deepest area of the cavity. The cavities were allocated to three different groups (shallow, medium, and deep) on the basis of the Prepometer results. The decision to use a calcium hydroxide liner or not was made by tossing a coin. Cavities which were to be later treated with an indirect restoration were restored with a buildup material. The other cavities were treated with a hybrid composite. After 6 months, the patients were re-examined and interviewed concerning postoperative pain incidents or hypersensitivity. A logistic regression was performed for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: Logistic regression showed no statistically significant influence of any of the three different variables "cavity depth", "calcium hydroxide liner" and "restorative material" on the occurrence of pain or hypersensitivity. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of pain or hypersensitivity does not depend on the remaining dentin thickness, calcium hydroxide lining, or the restorative system used in the present study.