Prion diseases are characterised by severe neural lesions linked to the presence of an abnormal protease-resistant isoform of cellular prion protein (PrPc). The peptide PrP(106-126) is widely used as a model of neurotoxicity in prion diseases. Here, we examine in detail the intracellular signalling cascades induced by PrP(106-126) in cortical neurons and the participation of PrPc. We show that PrP(106-126) induces the activation of subsets of intracellular kinases (e.g., ERK1/2), early growth response 1 synthesis and induces caspase-3 activity, all of which are mediated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen-oxidase activity and oxidative stress. However, cells lacking PrPc are similarly affected after peptide exposure, and this questions the involvement of PrPc in these effects.