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Regulation and Roles of the Nucleolus in Embryonic Stem Cells: From Ribosome Biogenesis to Genome Organization


Gupta, Shivani; Santoro, Raffaella (2020). Regulation and Roles of the Nucleolus in Embryonic Stem Cells: From Ribosome Biogenesis to Genome Organization. Stem Cell Reports, 15(6):1206-1219.

Abstract

The nucleolus is the largest compartment of the eukaryotic cell's nucleus. It acts as a ribosome factory, thereby sustaining the translation machinery. The nucleolus is also the subnuclear compartment with the highest transcriptional activity in the cell, where hundreds of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes transcribe the overwhelming majority of RNAs. The structure and composition of the nucleolus change according to the developmental state. For instance, in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), rRNA genes display a hyperactive transcriptional state and open chromatin structure compared with differentiated cells. Increasing evidence indicates that the role of the nucleolus and rRNA genes might go beyond the control of ribosome biogenesis. One such role is linked to the genome architecture, since repressive domains are often located close to the nucleolus. This review highlights recent findings describing how the nucleolus is regulated in ESCs and its role in regulating ribosome biogenesis and genome organization for the maintenance of stem cell identity.

Abstract

The nucleolus is the largest compartment of the eukaryotic cell's nucleus. It acts as a ribosome factory, thereby sustaining the translation machinery. The nucleolus is also the subnuclear compartment with the highest transcriptional activity in the cell, where hundreds of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes transcribe the overwhelming majority of RNAs. The structure and composition of the nucleolus change according to the developmental state. For instance, in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), rRNA genes display a hyperactive transcriptional state and open chromatin structure compared with differentiated cells. Increasing evidence indicates that the role of the nucleolus and rRNA genes might go beyond the control of ribosome biogenesis. One such role is linked to the genome architecture, since repressive domains are often located close to the nucleolus. This review highlights recent findings describing how the nucleolus is regulated in ESCs and its role in regulating ribosome biogenesis and genome organization for the maintenance of stem cell identity.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinärwissenschaftliches Institut > Department of Molecular Mechanisms of Disease
07 Faculty of Science > Department of Molecular Mechanisms of Disease
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Biochemistry
Life Sciences > Genetics
Life Sciences > Developmental Biology
Life Sciences > Cell Biology
Language:English
Date:2020
Deposited On:16 Mar 2021 15:58
Last Modified:25 Jun 2024 01:38
Publisher:Cell Press (Elsevier)
ISSN:2213-6711
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.08.012
PubMed ID:32976768
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)