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From Genetic Alterations to Tumor Microenvironment: The Ariadne’s String in Pancreatic Cancer


Abstract

The threatening notoriety of pancreatic cancer mainly arises from its negligible early diagnosis, highly aggressive progression, failure of conventional therapeutic options and consequent very poor prognosis. The most important driver genes of pancreatic cancer are the oncogene KRAS and the tumor suppressors TP53, CDKN2A, and SMAD4. Although the presence of few drivers, several signaling pathways are involved in the oncogenesis of this cancer type, some of them with promising targets for precision oncology. Pancreatic cancer is recognized as one of immunosuppressive phenotype cancer: it is characterized by a fibrotic-desmoplastic stroma, in which there is an intensive cross-talk between several cellular (e.g., fibroblasts, myeloid cells, lymphocytes, endothelial, and myeloid cells) and acellular (collagen, fibronectin, and soluble factors) components. In this review; we aim to describe the current knowledge of the genetic/biological landscape of pancreatic cancer and the composition of its tumor microenvironment; in order to better direct in the intrinsic labyrinth of this complex tumor type. Indeed; disentangling the genetic and molecular characteristics of cancer cells and the environment in which they evolve may represent the crucial step towards more effective therapeutic strategies

Abstract

The threatening notoriety of pancreatic cancer mainly arises from its negligible early diagnosis, highly aggressive progression, failure of conventional therapeutic options and consequent very poor prognosis. The most important driver genes of pancreatic cancer are the oncogene KRAS and the tumor suppressors TP53, CDKN2A, and SMAD4. Although the presence of few drivers, several signaling pathways are involved in the oncogenesis of this cancer type, some of them with promising targets for precision oncology. Pancreatic cancer is recognized as one of immunosuppressive phenotype cancer: it is characterized by a fibrotic-desmoplastic stroma, in which there is an intensive cross-talk between several cellular (e.g., fibroblasts, myeloid cells, lymphocytes, endothelial, and myeloid cells) and acellular (collagen, fibronectin, and soluble factors) components. In this review; we aim to describe the current knowledge of the genetic/biological landscape of pancreatic cancer and the composition of its tumor microenvironment; in order to better direct in the intrinsic labyrinth of this complex tumor type. Indeed; disentangling the genetic and molecular characteristics of cancer cells and the environment in which they evolve may represent the crucial step towards more effective therapeutic strategies

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinärwissenschaftliches Institut > Department of Molecular Mechanisms of Disease
07 Faculty of Science > Department of Molecular Mechanisms of Disease
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Medicine
Language:English
Date:28 January 2020
Deposited On:16 Mar 2021 15:26
Last Modified:25 Jun 2024 01:38
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:2073-4409
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020309
PubMed ID:32012917
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)