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An adapted smoking-cessation intervention for Turkish-speaking migrants in Switzerland: Predictors of smoking outcomes at one-year follow-up


Paz Castro, Raquel; Schaub, Michael P; Salis Gross, Corina (2021). An adapted smoking-cessation intervention for Turkish-speaking migrants in Switzerland: Predictors of smoking outcomes at one-year follow-up. PLoS ONE, 16(3):e0247157.

Abstract

Background
Migrant populations usually report higher smoking rates. Among those migrant populations, Turkish- and Kurdish-speaking migrants are often overrepresented. Providing equal access to health services is one of the major challenges of our time. The need for adapted smoking-cessation treatments for Turkish-speaking populations to achieve equity in health led, in 2006, to the development and implementation of the Tiryaki-Kukla smoking-cessation program. The aims of the current study were to evaluate one-year quit rates for smoking-cessation courses held from 2006–2018 and investigate whether certain characteristics predict long-term smoking cessation or reduction.


Methods
Program evaluation included a pre/post questionnaire (session 1/ 3 months after the quit day) and a follow-up telephone call twelve months after the quit day. To elucidate factors associated with long-term smoking cessation and reduction, Cox regression analysis and Weighted Generalized Equation Models were used.


Results
Of the 478 who participated in smoking-cessation courses, 45.4% declared themselves non-smokers at one-year follow-up. This quit rate is higher than that achieved during the preliminary evaluation of the program involving 61 participants (37.7%). Predictors of long-term smoking cessation were course length (eight vs. six sessions) (95% CI = 1.04–1.36, p = .01), adherence to the course (95% CI = 0.98–0.99, p<0.01), use of pharmacotherapy or nicotine replacement therapy products (95% CI = 0.74–0.98, p = .02), and time passed in the morning until the first cigarette is smoked (95% CI$^{5min}$ = 1.17–1.77, p<0.001; 95% CI$^{30min}$ = 1.09–1.65, p<0.01). Predictors of change in cigarettes smoked per day among smokers were—the time passed until the first cigarette in the morning (5min p < .001; 30min p < .001; 60min p < .01)-, gender (p < .001), and level of motivation to quit at baseline (p = .04).


Conclusions
Our findings are consistent with existing evidence supporting adapted smoking cessation interventions to reduce health inequity in migrant populations. However, achieving harm reduction in smokers with higher dependence scores remains challenging.

Abstract

Background
Migrant populations usually report higher smoking rates. Among those migrant populations, Turkish- and Kurdish-speaking migrants are often overrepresented. Providing equal access to health services is one of the major challenges of our time. The need for adapted smoking-cessation treatments for Turkish-speaking populations to achieve equity in health led, in 2006, to the development and implementation of the Tiryaki-Kukla smoking-cessation program. The aims of the current study were to evaluate one-year quit rates for smoking-cessation courses held from 2006–2018 and investigate whether certain characteristics predict long-term smoking cessation or reduction.


Methods
Program evaluation included a pre/post questionnaire (session 1/ 3 months after the quit day) and a follow-up telephone call twelve months after the quit day. To elucidate factors associated with long-term smoking cessation and reduction, Cox regression analysis and Weighted Generalized Equation Models were used.


Results
Of the 478 who participated in smoking-cessation courses, 45.4% declared themselves non-smokers at one-year follow-up. This quit rate is higher than that achieved during the preliminary evaluation of the program involving 61 participants (37.7%). Predictors of long-term smoking cessation were course length (eight vs. six sessions) (95% CI = 1.04–1.36, p = .01), adherence to the course (95% CI = 0.98–0.99, p<0.01), use of pharmacotherapy or nicotine replacement therapy products (95% CI = 0.74–0.98, p = .02), and time passed in the morning until the first cigarette is smoked (95% CI$^{5min}$ = 1.17–1.77, p<0.001; 95% CI$^{30min}$ = 1.09–1.65, p<0.01). Predictors of change in cigarettes smoked per day among smokers were—the time passed until the first cigarette in the morning (5min p < .001; 30min p < .001; 60min p < .01)-, gender (p < .001), and level of motivation to quit at baseline (p = .04).


Conclusions
Our findings are consistent with existing evidence supporting adapted smoking cessation interventions to reduce health inequity in migrant populations. However, achieving harm reduction in smokers with higher dependence scores remains challenging.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Swiss Research Institute for Public Health and Addiction
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:18 March 2021
Deposited On:24 Mar 2021 14:12
Last Modified:24 Mar 2021 14:12
Publisher:Public Library of Science (PLoS)
ISSN:1932-6203
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0247157

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