Ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis is a powerful tool in multidisciplinary research on human remains, potentially leading to kinship scenarios and historical identifications. In this study, we present a genetic investigation of three noble families from the 17th to 19th centuries AD entombed in burial crypts at the cloister church of Riesa (Germany). Tests were aimed at identifying anticipated and incidental genetic relationships in our sample and the implications thereof for the assumed identity of the deceased. A total of 17 individuals were investigated via morphological, radiographic and aDNA analysis, yielding complete and partial autosomal and Y-STR profiles and reliable mtDNA sequences. Biostatistics and lineage markers revealed the presence of first to third degree relationships within the cohort. The pedigrees of the families Hanisch/von Odeleben and von Welck were thereby successfully reproduced, while four previously unknown individuals could be linked to the von Felgenhauer family. However, limitations of biostatistical kinship analysis became evident when the kinship scenario went beyond simple relationships. A combined analysis with archaeological data and historical records resulted in (almost) unambiguous identification of 14 of the 17 individuals.