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Temporal trends, risk factors and outcomes of infections due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacterales in Swiss solid organ transplant recipients between 2012 and 2018


Kohler, Philipp; Wolfensberger, Aline; Stampf, Susanne; Brönnimann, Andreas; Boggian, Katia; van Delden, Christian; Favre, Melody; Hirzel, Cédric; Khanna, Nina; Kuster, Stefan P; Manuel, Oriol; Neofytos, Dionysios; Ragozzino, Silvio; Schreiber, Peter W; Walti, Laura; Mueller, Nicolas J; Swiss Transplant Cohort Study (2021). Temporal trends, risk factors and outcomes of infections due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacterales in Swiss solid organ transplant recipients between 2012 and 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 10:50.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The burden of antimicrobial resistance is high in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Among Swiss SOT recipients, we assessed temporal trends of ESBL-producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E), identified risk factors for ESBL-E, and assessed the impact of resistance on patient outcome.

METHODS

Data from the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study (STCS), a nationwide prospective cohort of SOT-recipients, were analysed. Temporal trends were described for ESBL-detection among Escherichia coli and non-Escherichia coli. In a nested case-control study, cases with ESBL-E infection were 1:1 matched (by time since transplantation, organ transplant, pathogen) to controls infected with non-ESBL-E. Factors associated with resistance and with unfavourable 30-day outcome (death, infection relapse, graft loss) were assessed.

RESULTS

From 2012 to 2018, we identified 1'212 infection episodes caused by Enterobacterales in 1'074 patients, thereof 11.4% (138/1'212) caused by ESBL-E. The proportion of ESBL-production among Escherichia coli remained stable over time (p = 0.93) but increased for non-E. coli (p = 0.02) Enterobacterales. In the case-control study (n = 102), antibiotic pre-treatment was independently associated with ESBL-production (aOR = 2.6, 95%-CI: 1.0-6.8, p = 0.046). Unfavourable outcome occurred in 24/51 (47%) cases and 9/51 (18%) controls (p = 0.003). Appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy was the only modifiable factor associated with unfavourable outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

In Swiss SOT-recipients, proportion of infections with ESBL-producing non-E. coli Enterobacterales increased in recent years. Antibiotic pre-treatment represents a risk factor for ESBL-E. Improving appropriateness of empiric antibiotic treatment might be an important measure to reduce unfavourable outcome, which was observed in almost half of SOT-recipients with ESBL-E infections.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The burden of antimicrobial resistance is high in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Among Swiss SOT recipients, we assessed temporal trends of ESBL-producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E), identified risk factors for ESBL-E, and assessed the impact of resistance on patient outcome.

METHODS

Data from the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study (STCS), a nationwide prospective cohort of SOT-recipients, were analysed. Temporal trends were described for ESBL-detection among Escherichia coli and non-Escherichia coli. In a nested case-control study, cases with ESBL-E infection were 1:1 matched (by time since transplantation, organ transplant, pathogen) to controls infected with non-ESBL-E. Factors associated with resistance and with unfavourable 30-day outcome (death, infection relapse, graft loss) were assessed.

RESULTS

From 2012 to 2018, we identified 1'212 infection episodes caused by Enterobacterales in 1'074 patients, thereof 11.4% (138/1'212) caused by ESBL-E. The proportion of ESBL-production among Escherichia coli remained stable over time (p = 0.93) but increased for non-E. coli (p = 0.02) Enterobacterales. In the case-control study (n = 102), antibiotic pre-treatment was independently associated with ESBL-production (aOR = 2.6, 95%-CI: 1.0-6.8, p = 0.046). Unfavourable outcome occurred in 24/51 (47%) cases and 9/51 (18%) controls (p = 0.003). Appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy was the only modifiable factor associated with unfavourable outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

In Swiss SOT-recipients, proportion of infections with ESBL-producing non-E. coli Enterobacterales increased in recent years. Antibiotic pre-treatment represents a risk factor for ESBL-E. Improving appropriateness of empiric antibiotic treatment might be an important measure to reduce unfavourable outcome, which was observed in almost half of SOT-recipients with ESBL-E infections.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Oncology and Hematology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Cardiology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Thoracic Surgery
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Health Sciences > Microbiology (medical)
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Health Sciences > Pharmacology (medical)
Language:English
Date:7 March 2021
Deposited On:27 Apr 2021 13:53
Last Modified:25 Jun 2024 01:39
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:2047-2994
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s13756-021-00918-7
PubMed ID:33678189
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)