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Inflammation: a putative link between phosphate metabolism and cardiovascular disease


Voelkl, Jakob; Egli-Spichtig, Daniela; Alesutan, Ioana; Wagner, Carsten A (2021). Inflammation: a putative link between phosphate metabolism and cardiovascular disease. Clinical Science, 135(1):201-227.

Abstract

Dietary habits in the western world lead to increasing phosphate intake. Under physiological conditions, extraosseous precipitation of phosphate with calcium is prevented by a mineral buffering system composed of calcification inhibitors and tight control of serum phosphate levels. The coordinated hormonal regulation of serum phosphate involves fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), αKlotho, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitriol. A severe derangement of phosphate homeostasis is observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), a patient collective with extremely high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Higher phosphate levels in serum have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients, but also in the general population. The causal connections between phosphate and CVD are currently incompletely understood. An assumed link between phosphate and cardiovascular risk is the development of medial vascular calcification, a process actively promoted and regulated by a complex mechanistic interplay involving activation of pro-inflammatory signalling. Emerging evidence indicates a link between disturbances in phosphate homeostasis and inflammation. The present review focuses on critical interactions of phosphate homeostasis, inflammation, vascular calcification and CVD. Especially, pro-inflammatory responses mediating hyperphosphatemia-related development of vascular calcification as well as FGF23 as a critical factor in the interplay between inflammation and cardiovascular alterations, beyond its phosphaturic effects, are addressed.

Abstract

Dietary habits in the western world lead to increasing phosphate intake. Under physiological conditions, extraosseous precipitation of phosphate with calcium is prevented by a mineral buffering system composed of calcification inhibitors and tight control of serum phosphate levels. The coordinated hormonal regulation of serum phosphate involves fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), αKlotho, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitriol. A severe derangement of phosphate homeostasis is observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), a patient collective with extremely high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Higher phosphate levels in serum have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients, but also in the general population. The causal connections between phosphate and CVD are currently incompletely understood. An assumed link between phosphate and cardiovascular risk is the development of medial vascular calcification, a process actively promoted and regulated by a complex mechanistic interplay involving activation of pro-inflammatory signalling. Emerging evidence indicates a link between disturbances in phosphate homeostasis and inflammation. The present review focuses on critical interactions of phosphate homeostasis, inflammation, vascular calcification and CVD. Especially, pro-inflammatory responses mediating hyperphosphatemia-related development of vascular calcification as well as FGF23 as a critical factor in the interplay between inflammation and cardiovascular alterations, beyond its phosphaturic effects, are addressed.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Physiology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Medicine
Language:English
Date:15 January 2021
Deposited On:17 May 2021 12:35
Last Modified:01 Jul 2021 18:11
Publisher:Portland Press
ISSN:0143-5221
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1042/CS20190895
PubMed ID:33416083

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