Kidney stone disease affects 1 in 10 persons at least once per life-time worldwide, in 2% the disease is recurrent. For the individual stone disease can be painful and lead even to chronic kidney disease, while the costs for the health system and economy can be very high. Thus, factors causing stone disease need to be identified in order to prevent or reduce the incidence of disease.
This review will discuss major risk factors contributing to stone disease with special emphasis on genetic and dietary risk factors. RESULTS: Stone disease is multifactorial with a strong genetic component, gender-specific risks and prevalence, and a modifiable contribution of nutrition. The different factors contributing to the risk for developing stones are discussed.
Urolithiasis is a frequent disorder affecting almost 10% of the population with a high risk of recurrence. Treatment and prevention have to be tailored to the individual causes of disease and require an assessment of underlying predispositions and interacting modifiable environmental factors.