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A novel allele of the Arabidopsis thaliana MACPF protein CAD1 results in deregulated immune signaling


Holmes, Danalyn R; Bredow, Melissa; Thor, Kathrin; Pascetta, Sydney A; Sementchoukova, Irina; Siegel, Kristen R; Zipfel, Cyril; Monaghan, Jacqueline (2021). A novel allele of the Arabidopsis thaliana MACPF protein CAD1 results in deregulated immune signaling. Genetics, 217(4):iyab022.

Abstract

Immune recognition in plants is governed by two major classes of receptors: pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs). Located at the cell surface, PRRs bind extracellular ligands originating from microbes (indicative of “non-self”) or damaged plant cells (indicative of “infected-self”), and trigger signaling cascades to protect against infection. Located intracellularly, NLRs sense pathogen-induced physiological changes and trigger localized cell death and systemic resistance. Immune responses are under tight regulation in order to maintain homeostasis and promote plant health. In a forward-genetic screen to identify regulators of PRR-mediated immune signaling, we identified a novel allele of the membrane-attack complex and perforin (MACPF)-motif containing protein CONSTITUTIVE ACTIVE DEFENSE 1 (CAD1) resulting from a missense mutation in a conserved N-terminal cysteine. We show that cad1-5 mutants display deregulated immune signaling and symptoms of autoimmunity dependent on the lipase-like protein ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 (EDS1), suggesting that CAD1 integrity is monitored by the plant immune system. We further demonstrate that CAD1 localizes to both the cytosol and plasma membrane using confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation. Our results offer new insights into immune homeostasis and provide tools to further decipher the intriguing role of MACPF proteins in plants.

Abstract

Immune recognition in plants is governed by two major classes of receptors: pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs). Located at the cell surface, PRRs bind extracellular ligands originating from microbes (indicative of “non-self”) or damaged plant cells (indicative of “infected-self”), and trigger signaling cascades to protect against infection. Located intracellularly, NLRs sense pathogen-induced physiological changes and trigger localized cell death and systemic resistance. Immune responses are under tight regulation in order to maintain homeostasis and promote plant health. In a forward-genetic screen to identify regulators of PRR-mediated immune signaling, we identified a novel allele of the membrane-attack complex and perforin (MACPF)-motif containing protein CONSTITUTIVE ACTIVE DEFENSE 1 (CAD1) resulting from a missense mutation in a conserved N-terminal cysteine. We show that cad1-5 mutants display deregulated immune signaling and symptoms of autoimmunity dependent on the lipase-like protein ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 (EDS1), suggesting that CAD1 integrity is monitored by the plant immune system. We further demonstrate that CAD1 localizes to both the cytosol and plasma membrane using confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation. Our results offer new insights into immune homeostasis and provide tools to further decipher the intriguing role of MACPF proteins in plants.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
07 Faculty of Science > Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Genetics
Language:English
Date:15 April 2021
Deposited On:19 May 2021 09:06
Last Modified:24 Feb 2024 02:50
Publisher:Genetics Society of America
ISSN:0016-6731
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/genetics/iyab022
PubMed ID:33779749
Project Information:
  • : FunderFP7
  • : Grant ID309858
  • : Project TitlePHOSPHINNATE - Signaling initiation and specificity in BAK1-dependent receptor kinase-mediated innate immunity in Arabidopsis